Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Structures and Dynamics

Windage Measurements in a Rotor-Stator System With Superimposed Cooling and Rotor-Mounted Protrusions

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiang Luo

e-mail: xiang.luo@buaa.edu.cn

Da Zhang

e-mail: zhangdamail@gmail.com

Zhi Tao

e-mail: tao_zhi@buaa.edu.cn

Guoqiang Xu

e-mail: guoqiang_xu@buaa.edu.cn

Qianshun Wang

e-mail: 504939893@qq.com
National Key Laboratory of Science
and Technology
on Aero-Engine Aero-Thermodynamics,
Beihang University,
37# Xueyuan Road, Haidian District,
Beijing 100191, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Structures and Dynamics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 12, 2013; final manuscript received November 21, 2013; published online December 19, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(4), 042505 (Dec 19, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1411; doi: 10.1115/1.4026086 History: Received November 12, 2013; Revised November 21, 2013

This paper has experimentally studied the windage torque in a rotor-stator system with superimposed central inflow and rotor-mounted protrusions. A novel measurement method has been proposed, and the basic principle is to transform the torque of rotating components into static torque measured by using a static torquemeter. Compared with the previous research, the difference of the moment coefficient for the free plain disk in this paper is within 10%. The disk models used in the experiments included a plain disk and a rotor with 18 protrusions. Plain-disk results were obtained with axial clearances varying from 4.5 mm to 40.5 mm and a stator of the same diameter. Two test cases were performed: one was the case where the flow structure was dominated by the superimposed flow and the other was where rotation dominated the flow structure. For the plain-disk case, as turbulence parameter increases, the sensitivity of the torque to variations of G value also increases, leaving the moment coefficient as a function of the rotational and throughflow Reynolds number only. Comparing to the flow parameter, gap ratio and shroud-clearance ratio have weaker influence on frictional moment coefficient. The rotor with protrusions results showed that the gap ratio had negligible effect on the moment coefficient for the former case; however, the torque decreased by approximately 20% with the decrease of the gap ratio for the latter case. It was also found that, for different configurations, the deviation in the moment coefficient was attributed to variations in form drag. In addition, the moment coefficient was affected by the orientation of bolts with respect to the direction of rotation. The empirical correlations have been proposed for the windage losses of various bolt configurations, and a further discussion about minimizing the windage losses was conducted.

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Fig. 1

The schematic of the test rig

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Fig. 2

The geometrical model of rotor-stator system

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Fig. 3

The orientation of bolts with respect to rotation

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Fig. 4

Free-disk correlations and the experimental results

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Fig. 5

Moment coefficients as a function of rotational Reynolds number for free disk

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Fig. 6

The influence factor for the six configurations

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Fig. 7

Comparison of the moment coefficient data with Owen's regional model

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Fig. 8

Effect of gap ratio on moment coefficients for the plain disk in rotor-stator systems

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Fig. 9

Effect of clearance ratio on moment coefficients for the plain-disk cases

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Fig. 10

Moment coefficient comparison among the different flow parameters

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Fig. 11

Effect of gap ratio on the moment coefficient with different configurations

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Fig. 12

Moment coefficient as a function of turbulent flow parameter with superimposed flow in centrifugal direction

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Fig. 13

Moment coefficient data for Cw = 0.682 × 104

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Fig. 14

Moment coefficient data for Cw = 3.41 × 104

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Fig. 15

Collapse of the moment coefficient results

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Fig. 16

Comparison of new correlation with Owen's regional model

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Fig. 17

Protrusions and measured and correlated values of Cm




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