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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Experimental Investigation of Liquid Jet Breakup in a Cross Flow of a Swirling Air Stream

[+] Author and Article Information
Tushar Sikroria, Abhijit Kushari

Department of Aerospace Engineering,
IIT Kanpur,
Kanpur U.P. 208016, India

Saadat Syed, Jeffery A. Lovett

Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Engines,
East Hartford, CT 06108

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 7, 2013; final manuscript received December 10, 2013; published online January 24, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(6), 061501 (Jan 24, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1404; doi: 10.1115/1.4026244 History: Received November 07, 2013; Revised December 10, 2013

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of liquid jet breakup in a cross flow of air under the influence of swirl (swirl numbers 0 and 0.2) at a fixed air flow Mach number 0.12 (typical gas turbine conditions). The experiments have been conducted for various liquid to air momentum flux ratios (q) in the range of 1 to 25. High speed (@ 500 fps) images of the jet breakup process are captured and those images are processed using matlab to obtain the variation of breakup length and penetration height with momentum flux ratio. Using the high speed images, an attempt has been made to understand the physics of the jet breakup process by identification of breakup modes—bag breakup, column breakup, shear breakup, and surface breakup. The results show unique breakup and penetration behavior which departs from the continuous correlations typically used. Furthermore, the images show a substantial spatial fluctuation of the emerging jet resulting in a wavy nature related to effects of instability waves. The results with 15 deg swirl show reduced breakup length and penetration related to the nonuniform distribution of velocity that offers enhanced fuel atomization in swirling fuel nozzles.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Illustration of various modes of breakup and their mechanisms [1]

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Fig. 2

Geometry of the field of study

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the experimental setup

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Fig. 4

Camera positions for 0 deg and 15 deg vanes

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Fig. 5

Difference between radial breakup location and penetration height

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Fig. 6

Image conversion from original to binary for q = 22 using a threshold of 0.07

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Fig. 7

Variation of penetration height and radial breakup location with momentum ratio for 0 deg vanes

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Fig. 8

Variation of penetration distance and axial breakup location with momentum ratio for 0 deg vanes

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Fig. 9

Temporal images of q = 8 for 0 deg vane showing shear breakup mode

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Fig. 10

Temporal images of q = 20 for 0 deg vane showing bag breakup mode

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Fig. 11

Variation of penetration height and radial breakup location with momentum ratio for 15 deg vane

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Fig. 12

Variation of penetration distance and axial breakup location with momentum ratio for 15 deg vane

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Fig. 13

Temporal images of q = 8 for 15 deg vane showing shear breakup mode

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Fig. 14

Temporal images of q = 21 for 15 deg vane showing bag breakup mode

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Fig. 15

Comparison of penetration heights for 0 deg and 15 deg swirl flows

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Fig. 16

Comparison of axial breakup location for 0 deg and 15 deg swirl flows

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Fig. 17

Liquid jet breakup mechanism

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Fig. 18

Effect of Weber number on breakup—combined action of inertial and surface tension forces

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