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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Three-Dimensional Mass Fraction Distribution of a Spray Measured by X-Ray Computed Tomography

[+] Author and Article Information
Filippo Coletti

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Stanford University,
Stanford, CA 94305
e-mail: colettif@stanford.edu

Michael J. Benson

Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering,
U.S. Military Academy,
West Point, NY 10996
e-mail: michael.benson@usma.edu

Alexander L. Sagues

U.S. Military Academy,
West Point, NY 10996
e-mail: Alexander.Sagues@usma.edu

Benjamin H. Miller

U.S. Military Academy,
West Point, NY 10996
e-mail: Benjamin.Miller@usma.edu

Rebecca Fahrig

Department of Radiology,
Stanford University,
Stanford, CA 94305
e-mail: fahrig@stanford.edu

John K. Eaton

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Stanford University,
Stanford, CA 94305
e-mail: eatonj@stanford.edu

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 17, 2013; final manuscript received November 22, 2013; published online January 9, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(5), 051508 (Jan 09, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1414; doi: 10.1115/1.4026245 History: Received November 17, 2013; Revised November 22, 2013

In order to design a spraying system with the desired characteristics, the atomization process has to be understood in detail, including the primary breakup of the liquid core. Accurate prediction of primary breakup is a major barrier to computer-based analysis of spray combustion. The development of models is hindered by the lack of validation data in a region where the fluid is dense, and optical access is therefore limited. The present experimental study is aimed at probing the spray structure by means of X-ray computed tomography (CT). A full-cone atomizer (0.79 mm orifice diameter) spraying in air at ambient pressure is investigated as a proof of concept. A mixture of water and iodine is used as the working fluid, providing elevated X-ray absorption and therefore, improved signal-to-noise ratio. Several hundreds of X-ray projections are acquired as the spraying atomizer is rotated in front of the detector. Standard software for medical imaging is used to reconstruct the three-dimensional time-averaged distribution of liquid mass fraction in the full field of view, from the intact liquid core to the dilute spray region. A spatial resolution of 0.6 mm is obtained along the spraying direction, while the resolution is 0.3 mm in the other two directions. Significant asymmetries in the structure of the spray are revealed.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Working principle of X-ray reconstruction

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Fig. 2

(a) Table-top system for X-ray tomography; (b) X-ray tube; (c) detector; and (d) imaging chain

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Fig. 3

CT reconstruction of atomizer head. In the red box, close up on nozzle geometry.

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Fig. 4

Schematic of the experimental set-up

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Fig. 5

Sections of reconstructed spray concentration along streamwise planes: (a) Z = 0 and (b) Y = 0

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Fig. 6

Profiles of spray concentration: (a) along centerline (b) and of cross-section average

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Fig. 7

Contours of spray concentrations along cross-sections between X/D = 1 and X/D – 15

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Fig. 8

Planar view of the cross-sections in Fig. 7, with contours of spray concentration

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Fig. 9

Profiles of spray concentration along the Z = 0 plane (a) and Y = 0 plane (b) at streamwise distances between X/D = 1 and X/D = 10

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Fig. 10

Isosurfaces of concentration at 20% (red), 5% (green), and 2.5% (cyan)

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