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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Effects of Fuel-Side N2, CO2, H2O Dilution on Combustion Characteristics and NOx Formation of Syngas Turbulent Nonpremixed Jet Flames

[+] Author and Article Information
Liying Zhuo

University of Science and Technology of China,
State Key Laboratory of Fire Science,
Hefei, Anhui 230026, China
e-mail: zlying@mail.ustc.edu.cn

Yong Jiang

University of Science and Technology of China,
State Key Laboratory of Fire Science,
Hefei, Anhui 230026, China
e-mail: yjjiang@ustc.edu.cn

Rong Qiu

University of Science and Technology of China,
State Key Laboratory of Fire Science,
Hefei, Anhui 230026, China
e-mail: rqh@ustc.edu.cn

Jiangtao An

University of Science and Technology of China,
State Key Laboratory of Fire Science,
Hefei, Anhui 230026, China
e-mail: ajt@mail.ustc.edu.cn

Wu Xu

University of Science and Technology of China,
State Key Laboratory of Fire Science,
Hefei, Anhui 230026, China
e-mail: xuwu0618@mail.ustc.edu.cn

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 18, 2013; final manuscript received January 1, 2014; published online February 4, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(6), 061505 (Feb 04, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1417; doi: 10.1115/1.4026427 History: Received November 18, 2013; Revised January 01, 2014

The effects of the three fuel-side diluents N2, CO2, and H2O on the accurate flame structure and NOx formation characteristics of the turbulent syngas nonpremixed flames are investigated using the one-dimensional-turbulence (ODT) model. For nonpremixed flames, the fuel mixtures consist of H2, CO and three diluents: N2, H2O, and CO2. The proportion of diluents is varied from 10% to 30% while the H2/CO ratio is kept as a constant at 0.75 all the time. Mass fraction of main species and temperature of 30% N2 basic dilution case predicted by the ODT model are compared with the tests measuring results obtained by International Workshop on Measurements and Computation of Turbulent Nonpremixed Flames, and it is found that the results are in good agreement. Numerical results indicate that the CO2 diluted flames have the largest reduction on flame temperature as well as the NOx emission, while H2O is more effective than N2. For CO2 and H2O dilution flames, flame structure becomes unstable with an obvious lift phenomenon. Since ODT captures the flame extinction process, flames added with CO2 and H2O not only have a lower extinction temperature but also the reignition process is slower.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Reynolds-averaged temperature contour of sygnas flames

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Fig. 2

Scatter plots for the temperature fraction versus mixture fraction at three axial stations (X/D = 20, 40, 60)

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Fig. 3

Scatter plots of NO mass fraction versus mixture fraction (X/D = 20, 40, 60)

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Fig. 4

Centerline evolution of the mean and fluctuations of the mixture fraction versus downstream distance, (–) ODT computation, (---) experiment

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Fig. 5

Streamwise evolutions of conditional means of temperature and key species (CO, H2O, CO2, H2, and OH) mass fraction for validation cases. The symbols are conditional means measured at x/d = 20 (square), x/d = 40 (circle), and x/d = 60 (triangle) whereas the lines represent ODT simulation results at x/d = 20 (solid–square), x/d = 40 (solid–circle), and x/d = 60 (solid–triangle).

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Fig. 6

Streamwise evolutions of conditional mean NO mass fraction and temperature for validation cases

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Fig. 7

Stoichiometric mean OH mass fraction and temperature as a function of x/d. The symbols are conditional means measured in flame N1 (dot), N3 (solid–circle), CO1 (dash), CO3 (solid–triangle), HO1 (solid), and HO3 (solid–square).

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Fig. 8

Comparison of axial profiles of extinction probability for six flames. The symbols are measured in flame N1 (dot), N3 (solid–circle), CO1 (dash), CO3 (solid–triangle), HO1 (solid), and HO3 (solid–square).

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