Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Experimental Investigation of a Hollow Cone Spray Using Laser Diagnostics

[+] Author and Article Information
Mithun Das

Power Engineering Department,
Jadavpur University,
Kolkata 700098, India
e-mail: mdas190@gmail.com

Souvick Chatterjee

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Jadavpur University,
Kolkata 700032, India
e-mail: souvickchat@gmail.com

Achintya Mukhopadhyay

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Jadavpur University,
Kolkata 700032, India
e-mail: achintya.mukho@gmail.com

Swarnendu Sen

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Jadavpur University,
Kolkata 700032, India
e-mail: sen.swarnendu@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 11, 2014; final manuscript received January 16, 2014; published online February 18, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(7), 071504 (Feb 18, 2014) (5 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1019; doi: 10.1115/1.4026549 History: Received January 11, 2014; Revised January 16, 2014

Atomization of fuel is a key integral part for efficient combustion in gas turbines. This demands a thorough investigation of the spray characteristics using innovative and useful spray diagnostics techniques. In this work, an experimental study is carried out on a commercial hollow cone nozzle (Lechler) using laser diagnostics techniques. A hollow cone spray is useful in many applications because of its ability to produce fine droplets. But apart from the droplet diameter, the velocity field in the spray is also an important parameter to monitor and has been addressed in this work. Kerosene is used as the test fuel, which is recycled using a plunger pump providing a variation in the injection pressure from 100 to 300 psi. An innovative diagnostic technique used in this study is through illumination of the spray with a continuous laser sheet and capturing the same with a high speed camera. A ray of a laser beam is converted to a planer sheet using a lens combination which is used to illuminate a cross section of the hollow cone spray. This provides a continuous planar light source which allows capturing high speed images at 285 fps. The high speed images thus obtained are processed to understand the nonlinearity associated with disintegration of the spray into fine droplets. The images are shown to follow a fractal representation and the fractal dimension is found to increase with rise in injection pressure. Also, using PDPA, the droplet diameter distribution is calculated at different spatial and radial locations at a wide range of pressure.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Santolaya, J., Aísa, L., Calvo, E., García, I., and Cerecedo, L., 2007, “Experimental Study of Near-Field Flow Structure in Hollow Cone Pressure Swirl Sprays,” J.Propul. Power, 23(2), pp. 382–389. [CrossRef]
Datta, A., and Som, S. K., 2000, “Numerical Prediction of Air Core Diameter, Coefficient of Discharge and Spray Cone Angle of a Swirl Spray Pressure Nozzle,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 21(4), pp. 412–419. [CrossRef]
Som, S. K., and Mukherjee, S. G., 1980, “Theoretical and Experimental Investigations on the Formation of Air Core in a Swirl Spray Atomizing Nozzle,” Appl. Sci. Res., 36(3), pp. 173–196. [CrossRef]
Han, Z., Parrish, S., Farrell, P. V., and Reitz, R. D., 1997, “Modeling Atomization Processes of Pressure-Swirl Hollow Cone Fuel Sprays,” Atomization Sprays, 7(6), pp. 663–684.
Park, H., and Heister, S. D., 2006, “Nonlinear Simulation of Free Surfaces and Atomization in Pressure Swirl Atomizers,” Phys. Fluids, 18(5), p. 052103. [CrossRef]
Hussein, A., Hafiz, M. R. H., Wisnoe, W., and Jasmi, M., 2012, “Effect of Orifice Diameter on Characteristics of Hollow Cone Swirl Spray Emanating from Simplex Nozzles,” AIP Conf. Proc., 1440(1), pp. 124–129. [CrossRef]
Li, X., and Shen, J., 1999, “Experimental Study of Sprays from Annular Liquid Jet Breakup,” J.Propul. Power, 15(1), pp. 103–110. [CrossRef]
Sommerfeld, M., 1998, “Analysis of Isothermal and Evaporating Turbulent Sprays by Phase-Doppler Anemometry and Numerical Calculations,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 19(2), pp. 173–186. [CrossRef]
Soltani, M., Ghorbanian, K., Ashjaee, M., and Morad, M., 2005, “Spray Characteristics of a Liquid–Liquid Coaxial Swirl Atomizer at Different Mass Flow Rates,” Aerospace Sci. Technol., 9(7), pp. 592–604. [CrossRef]
Saha, A., Lee, J. D., Basu, S., and Kumar, R., 2012, “Breakup and Coalescence Characteristics of a Hollow Cone Swirling Spray,” Phys. Fluids, 24(12), p. 124103. [CrossRef]
Mansour, A., and Chigier, N., 1990, “Disintegration of Liquid Sheets,” Phys. Fluids A, 2(5), pp. 706–719. [CrossRef]
Lai, W. H., Yang, K. H., Hong, C. H., and Wang, M. R., 1996, “Droplet Transport in Simplex and Air-Assisted Sprays,” Atomization Sprays, 6(1), pp. 27–49.
Lavergne, G., Trichet, P., Hebrard, P., and Biscos, Y., 1993, “Liquid Sheet Disintegration and Atomization Process on a Simplified Airblast Atomizer,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 115(3), pp. 461–466. [CrossRef]
Engelbert, C., Hardalupas, Y., and Whitelaw, J. H., 1995, “Breakup Phenomena in Coaxial Airblast Atomizers,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 451(1941), pp. 189–229. [CrossRef]
Wahono, S., Honnery, D., Soria, J., and Ghojel, J., 2008, “High-Speed Visualisation of Primary Break-Up of an Annular Liquid Sheet,” Exp. Fluids, 44(3), pp. 451–459. [CrossRef]
Carvalho, I. S., and Heitor, M. V., 1998, “Liquid Film Break-Up in a Model of a Prefilming Airblast Nozzle,” Exp. Fluids, 24(5–6), pp. 408–415. [CrossRef]
Negeed, E. R., Hidaka, S., Kohno, M., and Takata, Y., 2011, “Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Liquid Sheet Breakup Characteristics,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 32(1), pp. 95–106. [CrossRef]
Duke, D., Honnery, D., and Soria, J., 2010, “A Cross-Correlation Velocimetry Technique for Breakup of an Annular Liquid Sheet,” Exp. Fluids, 49(2), pp. 435–445. [CrossRef]
Chatterjee, S., Mukhopadhyay, A., and Sen, S., 2013, “Dynamic Mode Decomposition of Liquid Jet Atomization in a Hybrid Atomizer,” National Propulsion Conference (NPC-2013), Chennai, India, February 21–23, Paper No. 12009.
Duke, D., Honnery, D., and Soria, J., 2012, “Experimental Investigation of Nonlinear Instabilities in Annular Liquid Sheets,” J. Fluid Mech., 691, pp. 594–604. [CrossRef]
Shavit, U., and Chigier, N., 1995, “Fractal Dimensions of Liquid Jet Interface Under Breakup,” Atomization Sprays, 5(6), pp. 525–543.
Dumouchel, C., Cousin, J., and Triballier, K., 2005, “Experimental Analysis of Liquid–Gas Interface at Low Weber Number: Interface Length and Fractal Dimension,” Exp. Fluids, 39(4), pp. 651–666. [CrossRef]
Grout, S., Dumouchel, C., Cousin, J., and Nuglisch, H., 2007, “Fractal Analysis of Atomizing Liquid Flows,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 33(9), pp. 1023–1044. [CrossRef]
Bérubé, D., and Jébrak, M., 1999, “High Precision Boundary Fractal Analysis for Shape Characterization,” Comput. Geosci., 25(9), pp. 1059–1071. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the nozzle and top view of the swirl grooves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup for high speed imaging

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic setup with the phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Snapshot of the PDPA Setup with (inset) hollow cone nozzle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(top) A typical high speed spray image with the cone angle (bottom) influence of injection pressure on spray cone angle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Variation of the spray patternation with increasing axial distance from the nozzle exit (100 psi) (h denotes axial length from the nozzle exit)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

N(r) versus r for (a) 100 psi, (b) 200 psi, and (c) 300 psi pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Variation of fractal dimension with pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Diameter distribution with change of pressure (top) and diameter distributions at three different pressures (bottom) for 50 mm height from the nozzle tip

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Diameter distribution with change of height (top) and diameter distributions at three different heights (bottom) for pressure of 200 psi

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Mean radial velocity variation for different injection pressures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Mean radial velocity variation at different axial locations at a pressure of 300 psi



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In