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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Steady State Engine Test Demonstration of Performance Improvement With an Advanced Turbocharger

[+] Author and Article Information
Harold Sun

ASME Member
Ford Motor Company,
2101 Village Road,
Dearborn, MI 48121
e-mail: hsun3@ford.com

Dave Hanna

Ford Motor Company,
2101 Village Road,
Dearborn, MI 48121
e-mail: dhanna@ford.com

Liangjun Hu

Ford Motor Company,
2101 Village Road,
Dearborn, MI 48121
e-mail: lhu4@ford.com

Eric Curtis

Ford Motor Company,
2101 Village Road,
Dearborn, MI 48121
e-mail: ecurtis@ford.com

James Yi

Ford Motor Company,
2101 Village Road,
Dearborn, MI 48121
e-mail: jyi1@ford.com

Jimi Tjong

Ford Motor Company,
1 Quality Way,
Windsor N9A 6X3, Canada
e-mail: jtjong@ford.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 10, 2014; final manuscript received January 24, 2014; published online February 20, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(7), 072601 (Feb 20, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1017; doi: 10.1115/1.4026611 History: Received January 10, 2014; Revised January 24, 2014

Heavy EGR required on diesel engines for future emission regulation compliance has posed a big challenge to conventional turbocharger technology for high efficiency and wide operation range. This study, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored research program, is focused on advanced turbocharger technologies that can improve turbocharger efficiency on customer driving cycles while extending the operation range significantly, compared to a production turbocharger. The production turbocharger for a medium-duty truck application was selected as a donor turbo. Design optimizations were focused on the compressor impeller and turbine wheel. On the compressor side, advanced impeller design with arbitrary surface can improve the efficiency and surge margin at the low end while extending the flow capacity, while a so-called active casing treatment can provide additional operation range extension without compromising compressor efficiency. On the turbine side, mixed flow turbine technology was revisited with renewed interest due to its performance characteristics, i.e., high efficiency at low-speed ratio, relative to the base conventional radial flow turbine, which is relevant to heavy EGR operation for future diesel applications. The engine dynamometer test shows that the advanced turbocharger technology enables over 3% BSFC improvement at part-load as well as full-load condition, in addition to an increase in rated power. The performance improvement demonstrated on an engine dynamometer seems to be more than what would typically be translated from the turbocharger flow bench data, indicating that mixed flow turbine may provide additional performance benefits under pulsed exhaust flow on an internal combustion engine and in the low-speed ratio areas that are typically not covered by steady state flow bench tests.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Compressor and turbine wheels are redesigned and optimized to fit into a production (donor) turbocharger

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Fig. 2

Flow field CFD visualization inside a compressor impeller with (a) and without choke slot (b) when it operates near choke condition; mechanism of active casing treatment (c)

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Fig. 3

Steady state flow bench test of advanced compressor with ACT (only the last three speed lines marked the choke slot switch points, and the surge slot remains open) versus base compressor

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Fig. 4

Turbine speed ratio U/C varies during one cycle of a four stroke 6.7 l V8 diesel engine (GTPower simulation)

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Fig. 5

Comparison of steady state flow bench test: the new advanced mixed flow turbine versus radial flow donor turbine

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Fig. 6

Part load steady state engine performances at 3 bar BMEP@1250 rpm: new advanced turbo versus donor turbo

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Fig. 7

Comparison of steady state full load engine performance: the new advanced turbocharger versus conventional donor turbocharger

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