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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine Combustion With Hydrogen, Gasoline, and Ethanol as Fumigants: Effect of Diesel Injection Timing

[+] Author and Article Information
Wei Fang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
111 Church Street SE,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: fang0189@umn.edu

Bin Huang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
111 Church Street SE,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: binhuangxjtu@gmail.com

David B. Kittelson

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
111 Church Street SE,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: kitte001@umn.edu

William F. Northrop

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
111 Church Street SE,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: wnorthro@umn.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received December 16, 2013; final manuscript received January 9, 2014; published online February 28, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(8), 081502 (Feb 28, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1452; doi: 10.1115/1.4026655 History: Received December 16, 2013; Revised January 09, 2014

Premixed compression ignition (CI) combustion has attracted increasing research effort recently due to its potential to achieve both high thermal efficiency and low emissions. Dual-fuel strategies for enabling premixed CI have been a focus using a low-reactivity fumigant and direct diesel injection to control ignition. Alternative fuels like hydrogen and ethanol have been used as fumigants in the past but typically with diesel injection systems that did not allow the same degree of control or mixing enabled by modern common rail systems. In this work, we experimentally investigated hydrogen, ethanol, and gasoline as fumigants and examined three levels of fumigant energy fraction (FEF) using gasoline over a large, direct diesel injection timing range with a single-cylinder diesel engine. It was found that the operable diesel injection timing range at constant FEF was dependent on the fumigant's propensity for autoignition. Peak indicated gross cycle efficiency occurred with advanced diesel injection timing and aligned well with combustion phasing near top dead center (TDC), as we found in an earlier work. The use of hydrogen as a fumigant resulted in very low hydrocarbon (HC) emissions compared with ethanol and gasoline, establishing that they mainly result from incomplete combustion of the fumigated fuel. Hydrogen emissions were independent of diesel injection timing, and HC emissions were strongly linked to combustion phasing, giving further indication that squish and crevice flows are responsible for partially burned species from fumigation combustion.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental single-cylinder engine setup

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Fig. 2

Ignition delay, CA50, and gross-indicated cycle efficiency versus diesel injection timing for G-1, H-1, and E-1 cases

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Fig. 3

Gross apparent rate of heat release for G-1, H-1, and E-1 cases at 48 deg, 32 deg, and 20 deg diesel injection timing

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Fig. 4

Gross-indicated specific NOx, soot, CO, and H2 emissions for G-1, H-1, and E-1 cases

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Fig. 5

Gross-indicated specific HC, HCHO, and EtOH emissions for G-1, H-1, and E-1 cases

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Fig. 6

Ignition delay, CA50, and gross-indicated cycle efficiency versus diesel injection timing

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Fig. 7

Gross apparent rate of heat release for G-1, G-2, and G-3 cases at 48 deg, 32 deg, and 20 deg diesel injection timing

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Fig. 8

Gross-indicated specific NOx, soot, CO, and HC for G-1, G-2, and G-3 cases

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