0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Influence of Large Wake Disturbances Shed From the Combustor Wall on the Leading Edge Film Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
Cosimo Maria Mazzoni

Mem. ASME
Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory,
Department of Engineering Science,
Oxford University,
Southwell Building, Osney Mead,
Oxford OX2 0DP, UK
e-mail: cosimo.mazzoni@eng.ox.ac.uk

Christian Klostermeier

The Boston Consulting Group GmbH,
Am Stadttor 1,
Dusseldorf 40219, Germany
e-mail: klostermeier.christian@bcg.com

Budimir Rosic

Mem. ASME
Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory,
Department of Engineering Science,
Oxford University,
Southwell Building, Osney Mead,
Oxford OX2 0DP, UK
e-mail: budimir.rosic@eng.ox.ac.uk

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 13, 2014; final manuscript received January 26, 2014; published online March 7, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(8), 081503 (Mar 07, 2014) (13 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1027; doi: 10.1115/1.4026803 History: Received January 13, 2014; Revised January 26, 2014

The first vane leading edge film cooling is challenging because of the highest thermal load and the complex flow interaction between the hot mainstream gas and the coolant flow. This interaction varies significantly from the stagnation region to the regions of high curvature and acceleration further downstream. Additionally, in industrial gas turbines with multiple combustor chambers around the annulus the first vane leading edges may also be exposed to large wake disturbances shed from the upstream combustor walls. The influence of these vortical structures on the first vane leading edge film cooling is numerically analyzed in this paper. In order to assess the capabilities of the flow solver TBLOCK to simulate these complex interactions an experimental test case is modeled numerically. The test case is available in the open literature and consists of a cylindrical leading edge and two rows of film cooling holes representative of industrial practice. A LES turbulence modeling strategy with the WALE subgrid scale (SGS) model is applied and compared against experimental results. Based on this validation it is decided to analyze also the wake–leading edge interaction, dominated by large scale unsteady vortical structures, using the same WALE subgrid scale LES model. The initial flow domain with the cylindrical leading edge and cooling holes is extended to incorporate the effect of the combustor wall, which is modeled as a flat plate with a square trailing edge. The location and the size of the plate are scaled to be representative of industrial practice: the plate is located upstream from the leading edge at a distance twice the leading edge diameter, and the thickness of the plate is one half of the leading edge diameter. Two different clockwise positions of the vertical combustor wall model were investigated and compared with the datum configuration: the former where the axis of the plate and the leading edge are aligned (central wake location), the latter with the combustor wall circumferentially shifted up by a quarter of the leading edge diameter (circumferentially shifted wake location). Numerical predictions show that the shed vortices from the combustor wall trailing edge have a highly detrimental effect on the leading edge film cooling by periodically removing the coolant flow from the leading edge surface. This results in an increased unsteady thermal load. These negative effects are less significant in the case of circumferentially shifted wake, due to the combined action of both shed vortices.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Mick, W. J., and Mayle, R. E., 1988, “Stagnation Film Cooling and Heat Transfer, Including Its Effect Within the Hole Pattern,” ASME J. Turbomach., 110(1), pp. 66–72. [CrossRef]
Mehendale, A. B., and Han, J. C., 1992, “Influence of High Mainstream Turbulence on Leading Edge Film Cooling Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114(4), pp. 707–715. [CrossRef]
Cruse, M. W., Yuki, U. M., and Bogard, D. G., 1997, “Investigation of Various Parametric Influences on Leading Edge Film Cooling,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-296.
Funazaki, K., Yakota, M., and Yamawaki, S., 1997, “Effect of Periodic Wake Passing on Film Effectiveness of Discrete Cooling Holes Around the Leading Edge of a Blunt Body,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119(2), pp. 292–301. [CrossRef]
Du, H., Han, J. C., and Ekkad, S. V., 1998, “Effect of Unsteady Wake on Detailed Heat Transfer Coefficient and Film Effectiveness Distributions for a Gas Turbine Blade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120(4), pp. 808–817. [CrossRef]
Li, S. H., Rallabandi, A. P., and Han, J. C., 2011, “Influence of Unsteady Wake With Trailing Edge Coolant Ejection on Turbine Blade Film Cooling,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-45925. [CrossRef]
Grag, V. K., and Gaugler, R. E., 1997, “Effect of Velocity and Temperature Distribution at the Hole Exit on Film Cooling of Turbine Blades,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119(2), pp. 343–351. [CrossRef]
Leylek, J. H., and Zerkle, R. D., 1994, “Discrete-Jet Film Cooling: A Comparison of Computational Results With Experiments,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116(3), pp. 358–368. [CrossRef]
Walters, D. K., and Leylek, J. H., 2000, “A Detailed Analysis of Film Cooling Physics—Streamwise Injection With Cylindrical Holes,” ASME J. Turbomach., 122(1), pp. 102–112. [CrossRef]
Heidmann, J. D., Rigby, D. L., and Ameri, A. A., 2000, “A Three-Dimensional Coupled Internal/External Simulation of a Film-Cooled Turbine Vane,” ASME J. Turbomach., 122(1), pp. 348–359. [CrossRef]
Acharya, S., 2007, “Numerical Modelling Methods for Film Cooling,” Film Cooling Science and Technology for Gas Turbines: State-of-the-Art Experimental and Computational Knowledge (VKI Lecture Series 2007–06), April 16–20, von Karman Institute, Rhode-St-Genese, Belgium.
Acharya, S., 2007, “Steady and Unsteady RANS Film Cooling Predictions,” Film Cooling Science and Technology for Gas Turbines: State-of-the-Art Experimental and Computational Knowledge (VKI Lecture Series 2007–06), April 16–20, von Karman Institute, Rhode-St-Genese, Belgium.
Holloway, D. S., Walters, D. K., and Leylek, J. H., 2005, “Computational Study of Jet-in-Crossflow and Film Cooling Using a New Unsteady-Based Turbulence Model,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68155. [CrossRef]
Voigt, S., Noll, B., and AignerM., 2010, “Aerodynamic Comparison and Validation of RANS, URANS and SAS Simulations of Flat Plate Film-Cooling,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22475. [CrossRef]
Andrei, L., Andreini, A., Bianchini, C., and Facchini, B., 2012, “Numerical Benchmark of Non-Conventional RANS Turbulence Models for Film and Effusion Cooling,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-68794. [CrossRef]
Chernobrovkin, A., and Lakshminarayana, B., 1999, “Numerical Simulation and Aerothermal Physics of Leading Edge Film Cooling,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 213(Part A), pp 103–118. [CrossRef]
Lin, Y. L., Stephens, M. A., and Shih, T. I. P., 1997, “Film Cooling of a Cylindrical Leading Edge With Injection Through Rows of Compound Angle Holes,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-298.
York, W. D., and Leylek, J. H., 2002, “Leading Edge Film Cooling Physics—Part I: Adiabatic Effectiveness,” ASME Paper No. GT2002-30166. [CrossRef]
York, W. D., and Leylek, J. H., 2002, “Leading Edge Film Cooling Physics—Part II: Heat Transfer Coefficient,” ASME Paper No. GT2002-30167. [CrossRef]
Azzi, A., and Lakehal, D., 2001, “Perspective in Modelling Film Cooling of Turbine Blades by Transcending Conventional Two-Equation Model,” International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE'01), New York, November 11–16, ASME Paper No. IMECE2001-HTD-24317.
Takahashi, T., Funazaki, K., Salleh, H. B., Sakai, E., and Watanabe, K., 2010, “Assessment of URANS and DES for Predictions of Leading Edge Film Cooling,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22325. [CrossRef]
Funazaki, K., Kawabata, H., Takahashi, D., and Okita, Y., 2012, “Experimental and Numerical Study on Leading Edge Film Cooling Performance: Effects of Hole Exit Shape and Freestream Turbulence,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-68217. [CrossRef]
Acharya, S., and Tyagi, M., 2007, “Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for Film Cooling,” Film Cooling Science and Technology for Gas Turbines: State-of-the-Art Experimental and Computational Knowledge (VKI Lecture Series 2007–06), April 16–20, von Karman Institute, Rhode-St-Genese, Belgium.
Acharya, S., and Tyagi, M., 2003, “Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for Film Cooling Flow From an Inclined Cylinder Jet,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38633. [CrossRef]
Ziefle, J., and Kleiser, L., 2008, “Assessment of a Film-Cooling Flow Structure by Large-Eddy Simulation,” J. Turb., 9, p. N29. [CrossRef]
Graf, L., and Kleiser, L., 2010, “Large-Eddy Simulation of Double-Row Compound-Angle Film Cooling: Setup and Validation,” Comput. Fluids, 43(1), pp. 58–67. [CrossRef]
Fujimoto, S., 2012, “Large Eddy Simulation of Film Cooling Flows Using Octree Hexahedral Meshes,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-70090. [CrossRef]
Rozati, A., and Tafti, D. K., 2007, “Large Eddy Simulation of Leading Edge Film Cooling—Part I: Computational Domain and Effect of Coolant Pipe Inlet Condition,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27689. [CrossRef]
Rozati, A., and Tafti, D. K., 2007, “Large Eddy Simulation of Leading Edge Film Cooling—Part II: Heat Transfer and Blowing Ratio,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27690. [CrossRef]
Rozati, A., and Tafti, D. K., 2008, “Large-Eddy Simulations of Leading Edge Film Cooling: Analysis of Flow Structures, Effectiveness, and Heat Transfer Coefficient,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 29(1), pp. 1–17. [CrossRef]
Rozati, A., and Tafti, D. K., 2008, “Effect of Coolant-Mainstream Blowing Ratio on Leading Edge Film Cooling Flow and Heat Transfer—LES Investigation,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 29(4), pp. 857–873. [CrossRef]
Rosic, B., and Klostermeier, C., 2009, “Combustor Wall and the First Vane Leading Edge Film Cooling Interaction in an Industrial Gas Turbine,” 14th International Conference on Fluid Flow Technologies (CMFF-09), Budapest, Hungary, September 9–12.
Rosic, B., Denton, J. D., Horlock, J. H., and Uchida, S., 2010, “Integrated Combustor and Vane Concept in Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-23170. [CrossRef]
Aslanidou, I., Rosic, B., Kanjirakkad, V., and Uchida, S., 2012, “Leading Edge Shielding Concept in Gas Turbines With Can Combustors,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-68644. [CrossRef]
Klostermeier, C., 2008, “Investigation Into the Capability of Large Eddy Simulation for Turbomachinery Design,” Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University Engineering Department, Cambridge, UK.
Piomelli, U., and Chasnow, J. R., 1996, “Large-Eddy Simulations: Theory and Applications,” Transition and Turbulence Modelling, D.Henningson, M.Hallbaeck, H.Alfreddson, and A.Johansson, eds., Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp. 269–333.
Jeong, J., and Hussain, F., 1995, “On the Identification of a Vortex,” J. Fluid Mech., 285, pp. 69–94. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of an industrial gas turbine multiple combustion system and the first turbine vane

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup used by Cruse et al. [3] to investigate leading edge film cooling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Measured and predicted adiabatic cooling effectiveness contours modeling (the top wall)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Measured and predicted nondimensional temperature distributions at x/d = 1.24 from the central line

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Measured and predicted nondimensional temperature distributions at x/d = 4.9 from the central line

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Measured and predicted nondimensional temperature distributions at x/d = 10.0 from the central line

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Coherent structures (without wake)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Mass flow fluctuations (m/m2,mean) in time for each hole (without wake)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Computational flow domain with the leading edge and the upstream plate—central wake position

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Instantaneous y vorticity, nondimensional temperature, vortical structures, and adiabatic cooling effectiveness on the top half of leading edge (with central wake) for three different instances in time during one trailing edge vortex shedding period

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Mass flow fluctuations (m/m2,mean) in time for each hole (with central wake)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Predicted adiabatic cooling effectiveness contours at the leading edge top wall (without and with central wake)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Computational flow domain with the leading edge and the upstream plate—shifted wake position

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Instantaneous y vorticity, nondimensional temperature, vortical structures, and adiabatic cooling effectiveness on the top half of leading edge (with circumferentially shifted wake) for three different instances in time during one trailing edge vortex shedding period

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Mass flow fluctuations (m/m2,mean) in time for each hole (with circumferentially shifted wake

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Predicted adiabatic cooling effectiveness contours at the leading edge top wall (with central wake and with circumferentially shifted wake)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In