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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Predicting the Physical and Chemical Ignition Delays in a Military Diesel Engine Running n-Hexadecane Fuel

[+] Author and Article Information
Len Hamilton

United States Naval Academy,
121 Blake Road,
Annapolis, MD 21402
e-mail: ljhamilt@usna.edu

Dianne Luning Prak

United States Naval Academy,
121 Blake Road,
Annapolis, MD 21402
e-mail: prak@usna.edu

Jim Cowart

United States Naval Academy,
121 Blake Road,
Annapolis, MD 21402
e-mail: cowart@usna.edu

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 15, 2014; final manuscript received January 23, 2014; published online February 20, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(7), 071505 (Feb 20, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1030; doi: 10.1115/1.4026657 History: Received January 15, 2014; Revised January 23, 2014

There are currently numerous efforts to create renewable fuels that have similar properties to conventional diesel fuels. One major future challenge is evaluating how these new fuels will function in older legacy diesel engines. It is desired to have physically based modeling tools that will predict new fuel performance without extensive full scale engine testing. This study evaluates two modeling tools that are used together to predict ignition delay in a military diesel engine running n-hexadecane as a fuel across the engine's speed-load range. AVL-FIRE® is used to predict the physical delay of the fuel from the start of injection until the formation of a combustible mixture. Then a detailed Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) chemical kinetic mechanism is used to predict the chemical ignition delay. This total model predicted ignition delay is then compared to the experimental engine data. The combined model predicted results show good agreement to that of the experimental data across the engine operating range with the chemical delay being a larger fraction of the total ignition delay. This study shows that predictive tools have the potential to evaluate new fuel combustion performance.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
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References

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Caton, P. A., Williams, S. A., Kamin, R. A., Luning-Prak, D., Hamilton, L. J., and Cowart, J. S., 2012, “Hydrotreated Algae Renewable Fuel Performance in a Military Diesel Engine,” ASME 2012 Internal Combustion Engine Division Spring Technical Conference, Torino, Italy, May 6–9, ASME Paper No. ICES2012-81048. [CrossRef]
Caton, P. A., Hamilton, L. J., and Cowart, J. S., 2010, “Understanding Ignition Delay Effects With Pure Component Fuels in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 133(3), p. 032803. [CrossRef]
Mathes, A., Reis, J., Caton, P. A., Cowart, J. S., Luning-Prak, D., Hamilton, L. J., 2010, “Binary Mixtures of Branched and Aromatic Pure Component Fuels as Surrogates for Future Diesel Fuels,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 3(2), pp. 794–809. [CrossRef]
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Heywood, J. B., 1988, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, New York.
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Heat release analysis results from the low speed low load Humvee engine case with n-hexadecane fuel

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Fig. 2

PSOI (bar) measurements from the in-cylinder pressure transducer showing the pressure at SOI as a function of engine speed and load (e.g., overall operating equivalence ratio)

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Fig. 3

TSOI-LOW (K), lower limit for temperature at SOI determined using CR = 22, Z = 1.03, and 10% residual fraction

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Fig. 4

TSOI-HIGH (K), higher limit for temperature at SOI based on CR = 21 and air treated as an ideal gas

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Fig. 5

IGD low limit (ms). SOI based on peak fuel injection pressure.

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Fig. 6

IGD high limit (ms)

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Fig. 7

Injection duration (ms)

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Fig. 8

Low speed and load, first isosurface with ϕ = 2

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Fig. 9

Isosurface development at ϕ = 2 in 6 μs time steps

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Fig. 10

Phi 2 low speed and load every 0.06 ms

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Fig. 11

Physical delay time (ms) as a function of engine speed and load as well as modeling temperature and equivalence ratio

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Fig. 12

Chemical delay time as a function of engine speed and load as well as modeling temperature and equivalence ratio

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Fig. 13

ϕ = 2 modeling and experimental results at the low Tsoi

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Fig. 14

ϕ = 4 at TSOI-LOW

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Fig. 15

Summary of modeling and experimental results

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