Nonuniform combustor outlet flows have been demonstrated to have significant impact on the first and second stage turbine aerothermal performance. Rich-burn combustors, which generally have pronounced temperature profiles and weak swirl profiles, primarily affect the heat load in the vane but both the heat load and aerodynamics of the rotor. Lean burn combustors, in contrast, generally have a strong swirl profile which has an additional significant impact on the vane aerodynamics which should be accounted for in the design process. There has been a move towards lean burn combustor designs to reduce NOx emissions. There is also increasing interest in fully integrated design processes which consider the impact of the combustor flow on the design of the high pressure vane and rotor aerodynamics and cooling. There are a number of current large research projects in scaled (low temperature and pressure) turbine facilities which aim to provide validation data and physical understanding to support this design philosophy. There is a small body of literature devoted to rich burn combustor simulator design but no open literature on the topic of lean burn simulator design. The particular problem is that in nonreacting, highly swirling and diffusing flows, vortex instability in the form of a precessing vortex core or vortex breakdown is unlikely to be well matched to the reacting case. In reacting combustors the flow is stabilized by heat release, but in low temperature simulators other methods for stabilizing the flow must be employed. Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes and large eddy simulation have shown promise in modeling swirling flows with unstable features. These design issues form the subject of this paper.