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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Effect of Cetane Improver on Autoignition Characteristics of Low Cetane Sasol IPK Using Ignition Quality Tester1

[+] Author and Article Information
Ziliang Zheng

Wayne State University,
5050 Anthony Wayne Drive, Suite 2100,
Detroit, MI 48202
e-mail: zhengziliang@gmail.com

Tamer Badawy

Wayne State University,
5050 Anthony Wayne Drive, Suite 2100,
Detroit, MI 48202
e-mail: eng.tam@gmail.com

Naeim Henein

Wayne State University,
5050 Anthony Wayne Drive, Suite 2100,
Detroit, MI 48202
e-mail: henein@eng.wayne.edu

Eric Sattler, Nicholas Johnson

U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC,
6501 East 11 Mile Road,
Warren, MI 48397

UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 17, 2014; final manuscript received January 23, 2014; published online March 13, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(8), 081505 (Mar 13, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1034; doi: 10.1115/1.4026812 History: Received January 17, 2014; Revised January 23, 2014

This paper investigates the effect of a cetane improver on the autoignition characteristics of Sasol IPK in the combustion chamber of the ignition quality tester (IQT). The fuel tested was Sasol IPK with a derived cetane number (DCN) of 31, treated with different percentages of Lubrizol 8090 cetane improver ranging from 0.1 to 0.4%. Tests were conducted under steady state conditions at a constant charging pressure of 21 bar. The charge air temperature before fuel injection varied from 778 to 848 K. Accordingly, all the tests were conducted under a constant charge density. The rate of heat release was calculated and analyzed in detail, particularly during the autoignition period. In addition, the physical and chemical delay periods were determined by comparing the results of two tests. The first was conducted with fuel injection into air according to ASTM standards where combustion occurred. In the second test, the fuel was injected into the chamber charged with nitrogen. The physical delay is defined as the period of time from start of injection (SOI) to point of inflection (POI), and the chemical delay is defined as the period of time from POI to start of combustion (SOC). Both the physical and chemical delay periods were determined under different charge temperatures. The cetane improver was found to have an effect only on the chemical ID period. In addition, the effect of the cetane improver on the apparent activation energy of the global combustion reactions was determined. The results showed a linear drop in the apparent activation energy with the increase in the percentage of the cetane improver. Moreover, the low temperature (LT) regimes were investigated and found to be presented in base fuel, as well as cetane improver treated fuels.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

A sample of traces for the needlelift and chamber pressure depicting the definition of IQT ignition delay time

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the Ignition Quality Tester setup at Wayne State University (WSU)

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the additional DAQ system (based on Ref. [35])

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Fig. 4

Cetane improver typical treat rate response for Sasol IPK

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Fig. 5

Needlelift, pressure, RHR traces for different fuels at temperature 818 K

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Fig. 6

Mass burn fraction for (S) and (STs) at temperature 818 K

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Fig. 7

Zoomed rate of heat release for different fuels at temperature 818 K

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Fig. 8

(a) Pressure and needlelift traces in nitrogen charge for (S) and (STs) at 778 K. (b) Pressure and needlelift traces in nitrogen charge for (S) and (STs) at 848 K.

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Fig. 9

(a) Measured temperature traces in nitrogen charge for the (S) and (STs) at 778 K. (b) Measured temperature traces in nitrogen charge for the (S) and (STs) at 848 K.

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Fig. 10

Needlelift, pressure, RHR, and temperature traces for fuel injection into air and into nitrogen

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Fig. 11

3D CFD simulation results of pressure traces in the IQT for fuel injection into air with and without combustion

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Fig. 12

Chemical ignition delay at mean temperature for different fuels

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Fig. 13

Pressure and needlelift traces in air and nitrogen charge at temperature 818 K

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Fig. 14

Arrhenius plots for chemical ignition delay versus the mean temperature for (S) and (STs)

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Fig. 15

Correlation between activation energy based on the chemical delay and concentration of cetane improver

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