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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Study of Cylinder Charge Control for Enabling Low Temperature Combustion in Diesel Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Prasad Divekar

University of Windsor,
401 Sunset Avenue,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: divekar@uwindsor.ca

Usman Asad

University of Windsor,
401 Sunset Avenue,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: uasad@uwindsor.ca

Xiaoye Han

University of Windsor,
401 Sunset Avenue,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: hanz@uwindsor.ca

Xiang Chen

University of Windsor,
401 Sunset Avenue,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: xchen@uwindsor.ca

Ming Zheng

University of Windsor,
401 Sunset Avenue,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: mzheng@uwindsor.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 18, 2014; final manuscript received February 19, 2014; published online March 21, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(9), 091503 (Mar 21, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1112; doi: 10.1115/1.4026929 History: Received February 18, 2014; Revised February 19, 2014

Suitable cylinder charge preparation is deemed critical for the attainment of a highly homogeneous, diluted, and lean cylinder charge, which is shown to lower the flame temperature. The resultant low temperature combustion (LTC) can simultaneously reduce the NOx and soot emissions from diesel engines. This requires sophisticated coordination of multiple control systems for controlling the intake boost, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and fueling events. Additionally, the cylinder charge modulation becomes more complicated in the novel combustion concepts that apply port injection of low reactivity alcohol fuels to replace the diesel fuel partially or entirely. In this work, experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder research engine with diesel and ethanol fuels. The test platform is capable of independently controlling the intake boost, EGR rates, and fueling events. Effects of these control variables are evaluated with diesel direct injection and a combination of diesel direct injection and ethanol port injection. Data analyses are performed to establish the control requirements for stable operation at different engine load levels with the use of one or two fuels. The sensitivity of the combustion modes is thereby analyzed with regard to the boost, EGR, fuel types, and fueling strategies. Zero-dimensional cycle simulations have been conducted in parallel with the experiments to evaluate the operating requirements and operation zones of the LTC combustion modes. Correlations are generated between air–fuel ratio (λ), EGR rate, boost level, in-cylinder oxygen concentration, and load level using the experimental data and simulation results. Development of a real-time boost-EGR set-point determination to sustain the LTC mode at the varying engine load levels and fueling strategies is proposed.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the research cylinder

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Fig. 2

Zero-dimensional simulation setup and nomenclature

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Fig. 3

Experimental results showing the modes of low temperature combustion in a diesel engine

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Fig. 4

Experimental results showing the effect of intake oxygen concentration on HCCI combustion

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Fig. 5

Measured p–V diagrams for the selected cases of HCCI combustion

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Fig. 6

Simulation based conceptual representation of HCCI load limit with superimposed experimental data points

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Fig. 7

Results of EGR enabled LTC load extension tests

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Fig. 8

Heat release rate traces from pressure measurement of selected LTC instances

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Fig. 9

Simulation based conceptual representation of single injection LTC load limit

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Fig. 10

Experimental results showing the effect of boost and EGR application for dual fuel LTC

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Fig. 11

Load extension of the dual-fuel LTC combustion indicated by experimental pressure and HRR traces

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Fig. 12

Simulation based conceptual representation of dual fuel LTC load limit

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