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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations and Experiments for Reduction of Oil Churning Loss and Windage Loss in Aeroengine Transmission Gears

[+] Author and Article Information
Hidenori Arisawa

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, LTD.,
1-1, Kawasaki-cho,
Akashi City 673-8666, Japan
e-mail: arisawa_h@khi.co.jp

Motohiko Nishimura

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, LTD.,
1-1, Kawasaki-cho,
Akashi City 673-8666, Japan
e-mail: nishimura_mo@khi.co.jp

Hideyuki Imai

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, LTD.,
1-1, Kawasaki-cho,
Akashi City 673-8666, Japan
e-mail: imai_hideyuki@khi.co.jp

Tatsuhiko Goi

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, LTD.,
1-1, Kawasaki-cho,
Akashi City 673-8666, Japan
e-mail: goi_t@khi.co.jp

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 26, 2014; final manuscript received February 20, 2014; published online May 5, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(9), 092604 (May 05, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1049; doi: 10.1115/1.4026952 History: Received January 26, 2014; Revised February 20, 2014

The demand for power generation capacity has increased considerably due to the electric drive of cabin air conditioners and commercial aircraft engines. It is estimated that power losses may increase in the accessory gearbox due to generators and pumps that augment fuel consumption. To reduce these losses, a computational fluid dynamics simulation technique that analyzes oil churning and windage losses was developed and improvements were made to the shrouds of bevel gears, which have large losses in the gearbox. It was revealed experimentally that shrouding reduced losses up to 36% as compared to unshrouded gears.

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References

Matsumoto, S., Asanabe, S., Takano, K., and Yamamoto, M., 1985, “Evaluation Method of Power Loss in High-Speed Gears,” Japan Society of Lubrication Engineers Tribology Conference, Tokyo, Japan, July 8–10, pp. 1165–1170.
Johnson, G., Simmons, K., and Foord, C., 2007, “Experimental Investigation Into Windage Power Loss From a Shrouded Spiral Bevel Gear,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27885. [CrossRef]
Johnson, G., Chandra, B., Foord, C., and Simmons, K., 2009, “Windage Power Losses From Spiral Bevel Gears With Varying Oil Flows and Shroud Configurations,” ASME J. Turbomach., 131(4), p. 041019. [CrossRef]
Diab, Y., Changenet, C., Ville, F., and Velex, P., 2004, “Windage Losses in High Speed Gears—Preliminary Experimental and Theoretical Results,” ASME J. Mech. Design, 126(5), pp. 903–908. [CrossRef]
Farrall, M., Simmon, K., Hibberd, S., and Young, C., 2005, “Computational Investigation of the Airflow Through a Shrouded Bevel Gear,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68879. [CrossRef]
Hill, M. J., and Kunz, R. F., 2012, “A Computational Investigation of Gear Windage,” NASA Technical Report No. NASA/CR–2012-217807.
Hirt, C. W., and Nichols, B. D., 1981, “Volume of Fluid (VOF) Method for the Dynamics of Free Boundaries,” J. Computational Physics, 39(1), pp. 201–225. [CrossRef]
Wang, K. L., and Cheng, H. S., 1981, “A Numerical Solution to the Dynamic Load Film Thickness, and Surface Temperatures in Spur Gears, Part I: Analysis,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 103(2), pp. 177–187. [CrossRef]
Wang, K. L., and Cheng, H. S., 1981, “A Numerical Solution to the Dynamic Load Film Thickness, and Surface Temperatures in Spur Gears, Part II: Results,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 103(2), pp. 188–194. [CrossRef]
Flow Science, 2013, Flow-3D User Manual Ver. 9.2, Flow Science, Inc., Santa Fe, NM.
Dudley, D. W., 1962, “Loaded Gears in Action,” Gear Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 14-20–14-21.
Arisawa, H., Nishimura, M., Imai, H., and Goi, T., 2009, “CFD Simulation for Reduction of Oil Churning Loss and Windage Loss on Aeroengine Transmission Gears,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59226. [CrossRef]

Figures

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Fig. 1

Accessory gearbox of an aeroengine: (a) Rolls-Royce plc, 2005, “Section One—Design,” The Jet Engine, Rolls-Royce, Derby, UK, pp. 4–5; and (b) Rolls-Royce plc, 1986, “Accessory Drives,” The Jet Engine, 4th ed., Rolls-Royce, Derby, UK, pp. 70

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Fig. 2

Example of interactions between oil and air flows

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Fig. 3

High and low pressure around gear-meshing part

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Fig. 4

Oil acceleration at gear-meshing part

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Fig. 5

Oil particle modeling

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Fig. 6

Boundary-fitted calculation mesh for gear-meshing part

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Fig. 7

Calculation mesh using porous-body model for gear-meshing part

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Fig. 8

Modeling of gear boundaries in porous-body model

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Fig. 9

Oil film and space between tooth tip and bottom

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Fig. 10

Mechanism of windage loss

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Fig. 12

Examples of shrouds

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Fig. 13

Cross section of gear, shroud, and bearing

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Fig. 16

Test apparatus and measurement system

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Fig. 17

Total loss versus oil supply rate

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Fig. 18

Relative flow loss, amount of oil, and energy per unit oil mass without a back plate

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Fig. 19

Relative flow loss, amount of oil, and energy per unit oil mass with a back plate

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Fig. 20

Experimental and simulation results without the shroud

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Fig. 21

Experimental and simulation results with shroud No. 10

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Fig. 22

Comparison of velocity magnitude (simulation)

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