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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Short Spray Penetration for Direct Injection Gasoline Engines With Secondary-Drop-Breakup Simulation Integrated With Fuel-Breakup Simulation

[+] Author and Article Information
Eiji Ishii

Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Research Laboratory,
832-2, Horiguchi,
Hitachinaka, Ibaraki, Japan
e-mail: eiji.ishii.qm@hitachi.com

Hideharu Ehara

Hitachi Automotive Systems, Ltd.,
1671-1 Kasukawa,
Isesaki, Gunma, Japan
e-mail: hideharu.ehara.kz@hitachi.com

Motoyuki Abe

Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Research Laboratory,
832-2, Horiguchi,
Hitachinaka, Ibaraki, Japan
e-mail: motoyuki.abe.kc@hitachi.com

Toru Ishikawa

Hitachi Automotive Systems, Ltd.,
2520 Takaba,
Hitachinaka, Ibaraki, Japan
e-mail: tohru.ishikawa.ww@hitachi.com

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 27, 2014; final manuscript received February 22, 2014; published online April 1, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(9), 091506 (Apr 01, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1051; doi: 10.1115/1.4026986 History: Received January 27, 2014; Revised February 22, 2014

Direct injection gasoline engines have both better engine power and fuel efficiency than port injection gasoline engines. However, direct injection gasoline engines also emit more particulate matter (PM) than port injection gasoline engines do. To decrease PM, fuel injectors with short spray penetration are required. More effective fuel injectors can be preliminarily designed by numerically simulating fuel spray. We previously developed a fuel-spray simulation. Both the fuel flow within the flow paths of an injector and the liquid column at the injector outlet were simulated by using a grid method. The liquid-column breakup was simulated by using a particle method. The motion of droplets within the air/fuel mixture (secondary-drop-breakup) region was calculated by using a discrete droplet model (DDM). In this study, we applied our fuel-spray simulation to sprays for the direct injection gasoline engines. Simulated spray penetrations agreed relatively well with measured spray penetrations. Velocity distributions at the outlet of three kinds of nozzles were plotted by using a histogram, and the relationship between the velocity distributions and spray penetrations was studied. We found that shrinking the high-speed region and making the velocity-distribution uniform were required for short spray penetration.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

MPS and CIP procedures in hybrid method

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Fig. 4

Computational grids for liquid-column-breakup simulation with 393,116 cells (left figure), and extended picture around nozzles (right figure)

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Fig. 5

Computational grids for air/fuel mixture simulation; 100 × 100 × 100 cells

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Fig. 13

Velocity distributions at outlets of counter borings of three nozzles: (a) chamfered inlet with curved surface, (b) standard, and (c) shrinking outlet with loop convex

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Fig. 14

Volume fractions of velocities at outlet of three nozzles

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Fig. 2

Calculation of velocity and droplet distributions in data-sampling region

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Fig. 3

Apparatus for measuring spray pattern with xenon flash lamp

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Fig. 6

Liquid-column-breakup simulation. Side view is on the left, and front view is on the right.

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Fig. 7

Liquid jet distributions 1.14 mm from bottom of orifice cup. Nozzles of 5 and 6 are assigned at symmetric positions to nozzles of 3 and 2.

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Fig. 8

Error of distribution ratios of flow rate in four nozzles

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Fig. 9

Air/fuel mixture simulation compared with measured fuel spray: (a) measurements, and (b) simulation

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Fig. 10

Three kinds of nozzle shapes for studying dominant factors relating to spray penetrations: (a) chamfered inlet with curved surface, (b) standard, and (c) shrinking outlet with loop convex

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Fig. 11

Sprays from three nozzles: (a) chamfered inlet with curved surface, (b) standard, and (c) shrinking outlet with loop convex

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Fig. 12

Velocity distributions in sections of three nozzles: (a) chamfered inlet with curved surface, (b) standard, and (c) shrinking outlet with loop convex

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