Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Ozone-Assisted Combustion—Part I: Literature Review and Kinetic Study Using Detailed n-Heptane Kinetic Mechanism

[+] Author and Article Information
Christopher Depcik, Colter Ragone

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Kansas,
3138 Learned Hall,
1530 W. 15th Street,
Lawrence, KS 66045-4709

Michael Mangus

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Kansas,
3138 Learned Hall,
1530 W. 15th Street,
Lawrence, KS 66045-4709
e-mail: mmangus@ku.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received October 2, 2013; final manuscript received March 2, 2014; published online April 18, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Song-Charng Kong.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(9), 091507 (Apr 18, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1355; doi: 10.1115/1.4027068 History: Received October 02, 2013; Revised March 02, 2014

In this first paper, the authors undertake a review of the literature in the field of ozone-assisted combustion in order to summarize literature findings. The use of a detailed n-heptane combustion model including ozone kinetics helps analyze these earlier results and leads into experimentation within the authors' laboratory using a single-cylinder, direct-injection compression ignition engine, briefly discussed here and in more depth in a following paper. The literature and kinetic modeling outcomes indicate that the addition of ozone leads to a decrease in ignition delay, both in comparison to no added ozone and with a decreasing equivalence ratio. This ignition delay decrease as the mixture leans is counter to the traditional increase in ignition delay with decreasing equivalence ratio. Moreover, the inclusion of ozone results in slightly higher temperatures in the cylinder due to ozone decomposition, augmented production of nitrogen oxides, and reduction in particulate matter through radial atomic oxygen chemistry. Of additional importance, acetylene levels decrease but carbon monoxide emissions are found to both increase and decrease as a function of equivalence ratio. This work illustrates that, beyond a certain level of assistance (approximately 20 ppm for the compression ratio of the authors' engine), adding more ozone has a negligible influence on combustion and emissions. This occurs because the introduction of O3 into the intake causes a temperature-limited equilibrium set of reactions via the atomic oxygen radical produced.

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Fig. 1

Literature Arrhenius expressions for the ozone reactions of (a) R1 and (b) R2, including averaged expressions

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Fig. 2

Zero-dimensional motoring engine simulation of (a) ozone concentration, (b) close-up of O3 and O at TDC, and (c) in-cylinder temperature as a function of initial ozone concentration

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Fig. 3

Parametric sweep of O3 on n-heptane ignition delay

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Fig. 4

Influence of O3 ((a) 0 ppm O3, (b) 20 ppm O3) on the levels of OH during a simulated constant volume combustion event

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Fig. 5

Influence of O3 on the final values of (a) NO, (b) NO2, (c) N2O, and (d) O3 during an n-heptane constant volume combustion event

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Fig. 6

Mass fraction burned of n-heptane as a function of ozone addition with time adjusted in order to equate the 50% point

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Fig. 7

Change in percentage sensitivity of top ten reactions for (a) NO, (b) NO2, and (c) N2O production as a function of adding 20-ppm O3

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Fig. 8

Acetylene levels at the 50% mass fraction burned point of n-heptane as a function of ozone addition using the time-adjusted results

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Fig. 9

Influence of O3 on the final values of CO during an n-heptane constant volume combustion event

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Fig. 10

Cylinder pressure versus engine crank angle for the mechanical fuel system (a) and common-rail fuel system (b) at 4.5 N-m




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