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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Diesel-Ignited Propane Dual Fuel Low Temperature Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew C. Polk, Chad D. Carpenter, E. Scott Guerry, U. Dwivedi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Mississippi State University,
Mississippi State, MS 39762

Kalyan Kumar Srinivasan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems,
Mississippi State University,
Mississippi State, MS 39762

Sundar Rajan Krishnan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems,
Mississippi State University,
Mississippi State, MS 39762
e-mail: krishnan@me.msstate.edu

Zach L. Rowland

Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems,
Mississippi State University,
Mississippi State, MS 39762

The heavy-duty engine is equipped with electronic unit pumps (EUPs), which supply the diesel at high injection pressures. The EUPs are cam driven, and therefore sensitive to engine position. As SOI is changed, the available fuel pressure also changes. Therefore, the earliest injection timing that was able to sustain pilot injection on the engine was found to be approximately 50 deg BTDC.

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 13, 2014; final manuscript received February 15, 2014; published online April 18, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(9), 091509 (Apr 18, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1085; doi: 10.1115/1.4027189 History: Received February 13, 2014; Revised February 15, 2014

This paper presents an experimental analysis of diesel-ignited propane dual fuel low temperature combustion (LTC) based on performance, emissions, and in-cylinder combustion data from a modern, heavy-duty diesel engine. The engine used for these experiments was a 12.9-liter, six-cylinder, direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine with electronic unit diesel injection pumps, a variable geometry turbocharger, and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The experiments were performed with gaseous propane (the primary fuel) fumigated upstream of the turbocharger and diesel (the pilot fuel) injected directly into the cylinders. Results are presented for a range of diesel injection timings (SOIs) from 10 deg BTDC to 50 deg BTDC at a brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) of 5 bar and a constant engine speed of 1500 rpm. The effects of SOI, percent energy substitution (PES) of propane (i.e., replacement of diesel fuel energy with propane), intake boost pressure, and cooled EGR on the dual fuel LTC process were investigated. The approach was to determine the effects of SOI while maximizing the PES of propane. Dual fuel LTC was achieved with very early SOIs (e.g., 50 deg BTDC) coupled with high propane PES (>84%), which yielded near-zero NOx (<0.02 g/kW h) and very low smoke emissions (<0.1 FSN). Increasing the propane PES beyond 84% at the SOI of 50 deg BTDC yielded a high COV of IMEP due to retarded combustion phasing (CA50). Intake boost pressures were increased and EGR rates were decreased to minimize the COV, allowing higher propane PES (∼93%); however, lower fuel conversion efficiencies (FCE) and higher HC and CO emissions were observed.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the dual fuel LTC concept

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Fig. 3

Dual fuel heat release rates, fuel injection pressures, and injection voltage profiles at indicated SOIs of 50 deg, 30 deg, and 10 deg BTDC for 80 PES of propane; BMEP = 5 bar, N = 1500 rpm, EGR = 10.6%, Pin = 1.88 bar, Tin = 20.1 °C

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Fig. 4

Apparent ignition delay, COV of IMEP, combustion noise, and MPRR versus indicated SOI; BMEP = 5 bar, N = 1500 rpm, EGR = 10.6%, Pin = 1.88 bar, Tin = 20.1 °C

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Fig. 5

Brake-specific NOx and smoke versus indicated SOI for 84 PES of propane and diesel baseline; BMEP = 5 bar, N = 1500 rpm, EGR = 10.6%, Pin = 1.88 bar, Tin = 20.1 °C

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Fig. 6

Normalized particle number size distribution for 84 PES of propane and diesel baseline 1; BMEP = 5 bar, N = 1500 rpm, EGR = 10.6%, Pin = 1.88 bar, Tin = 20.1 °C

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Fig. 7

Brake-specific NOx versus brake-specific HC for 84 PES of propane and diesel baselines; BMEP = 5 bar, N = 1500 rpm, EGR = 10.6%, Pin = 1.88 bar, Tin = 20.1 °C

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Fig. 8

Brake-specific NOx versus fuel conversion efficiency for 84 PES of propane and diesel baselines; BMEP = 5 bar, N = 1500 rpm, EGR = 10.6%, Pin = 1.88 bar, Tin = 20.1 °C

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Fig. 9

NMHC, HCHO, and C3H8 for 84 PES of propane; BMEP = 5 bar, N = 1500 rpm, EGR = 10.6%, Pin = 1.88 bar, Tin = 20.1 °C (bar legend: left, NMHC; middle, HCHO; right, C3H8)

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Fig. 10

Crank-angle-resolved heat release rate and cylinder pressure histories for a range of PES of propane at an indicated SOI of 50 deg BTDC; BMEP = 5 bar, N = 1500 rpm

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Fig. 11

Emissions, performance, and combustion metrics for a range of PES of propane at an indicated SOI of 50 deg BTDC; BMEP = 5 bar, N = 1500 rpm

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