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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Validation of a Three-Dimensional Internal Nozzle Flow Model Including Automatic Mesh Generation and Cavitation Effects

[+] Author and Article Information
Hongwu Zhao, Shaoping Quan, Meizhong Dai, Eric Pomraning, P. K. Senecal

Convergent Science Inc.,
Middleton, WI 53562

Qingluan Xue, Sibendu Som

Energy System Division,
Argonne National Laboratory,
Argonne, IL 60439

Michele Battistoni

Energy System Division,
Argonne National Laboratory,
Argonne, IL 60439
University of Perugia,
Perugia 06125, Italy

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 18, 2014; final manuscript received February 21, 2014; published online April 21, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(9), 092603 (Apr 21, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1111; doi: 10.1115/1.4027193 History: Received February 18, 2014; Revised February 21, 2014

Fuel injectors often experience cavitation due to regions of extremely low pressure. In this work, a cavitation modeling method is implemented in the CONVERGE computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code in order to model the flow in fuel injectors. The CONVERGE code includes a Cartesian mesh based flow solver. In this solver, a volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to simulate the multiphase flow. The cavitation model is based on a flash-boiling method with rapid heat transfer between the liquid and vapor phases. In this method, a homogeneous relaxation model is used to describe the rate at which the instantaneous quality, the mass fraction of vapor in a two-phase mixture, will tend towards its equilibrium value. The model is first validated with the nozzle flow case of Winklhofer by comparing the mass flow rate with experimentally measured values at different outlet pressures. The cavitation contour shape is also compared with the experimental observations. Flow in the Engine Combustion Network Spray-A nozzle configuration is simulated. The mesh dependency is also studied in this work followed by validation against discharge coefficient data. Finally, calculations of a five-hole injector, including moving needle effects, are compared to experimental measurements.

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References

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Salvador, F. J., Hoyas, S., Novella, R., and Martinez-Lopez, J., 2011, “Numerical Simulation and Extended Validation of Two-Phase Compressible Flow in Diesel Injector Nozzles,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D: J. Automob. Eng., 225(4), pp. 545-556. [CrossRef]
Giannadakis, E., Papoulias, D., Gavaises, M., Arcoumanis, C., Soterious, C., and Tang, W., 2007, “Evaluation of the Predictive Capability of Diesel Nozzle Cavitation Models,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0245. [CrossRef]
Margot, X., Hoyas, S., Fajardo, P., and Patouna, S., 2010, “A Moving Mesh Generation Strategy for Solving an Injector Internal Flow Problem,” Math. Comput. Model., 52(7–8), pp. 1143–1150. [CrossRef]
Payri, F., Margot, X., Patouna, S., Ravet, F., and Funk, M., 2009, “A CFD Study of the Effect of the Needle Movement on the Cavitation Pattern of Diesel Injectors,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-24-0025. [CrossRef]
Lee, W. G. and Reitz, R. D., 2010, “A Numerical Investigation of Transient Flow and Cavitation Within Minisac and Valve-Covered Orifice Diesel Injector Nozzles,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(5), p. 052802. [CrossRef]
Neroorkar, K. D., Mitcham, C., Plazas, A., Grover, T., and Schmidt, D., 2012, “Simulations and Analysis of Fuel Flow in an Injector Including Transient Needle Effects,” 24th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (ILASS-Americas), San Antonio, TX, May 20–23.
Pickett, L. M., Genzale, C. L., Bruneaux, G., Malbec, L. M., Hermant, L., Christiansen, C., and Schramm, J., 2010, “Comparison of Diesel Spray Combustion in Different High-Temperature, High-Pressure Facilities,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 3(2), pp. 156–181. [CrossRef]
Schmidt, D., Rakshit, S., and Neroorkar, K., 2009, “Thermal and Inertial Equilibrium in Small, High-Speed, Cavitating Nozzle Simulations,” 11th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (ICLASS-2009), Vail, CO, July 26–30.
Shields, B., Neroorkar, K., and Schmidt, D., 2011, “Cavitation as Rapid Flash Boiling,” 23rd Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (ILASS-Americas), Ventura, CA, May 15–18.
Bilicki, Z. and Kestin, J., 1990, “Physical Aspects of the Relaxation Model in Two-Phase Flow,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 428(1875), pp. 379–397. [CrossRef]
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Figures

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Fig. 1

A schematic showing the convective boundedness criterion: U represents upwind cells; D, the donor cells; and A, the acceptor cells

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Fig. 2

Geometry of the Winklhofer nozzle

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Fig. 3

Initial Cartesian mesh of the Winklhofer nozzle simulation

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Fig. 4

Cartesian mesh level with AMR. Blue, base mesh level; cyan, first embedding level; yellow, second embedding level; and red, third embedding level.

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Fig. 5

Velocity and pressure contour of the Winklhofer nozzle simulation at ΔP = 80 bar. Left, velocity contour; and right, pressure contour.

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Fig. 6

Void fraction comparison with experimental measurements at ΔP = 60 bar. Left, experimental; and right, simulated.

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Fig. 7

Void fraction comparison with experimental measurements at ΔP = 70 bar. Left, experimental; and right, simulated.

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Fig. 8

Void fraction comparison with experimental measurements at ΔP = 80 bar. Left, experimental; and right, simulated.

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Fig. 9

Simulated mass rate comparison with the experimental measurements

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Fig. 10

The geometry of the Spray-A nozzle

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Fig. 11

The Spray-A nozzle injection pressure versus time

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Fig. 12

The needle lift versus time for the Spray-A nozzle

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Fig. 13

Velocity contour of the Spray-A nozzle

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Fig. 14

Mass flow rate versus time and relative error in the mass flow rate compared to the 7.5 μm resolution

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Fig. 15

Geometry of the five-hole microSac nozzle. Left, with needle; and right, no needle.

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Fig. 16

Needle lift of the five-hole microSac nozzle

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Fig. 17

Cartesian mesh of the five-hole microSac nozzle

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Fig. 18

Pressure contour of the five-hole microSac nozzle

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Fig. 19

Velocity contour of the five-hole microSac nozzle

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Fig. 20

Transient mass flow rate comparison of the five-hole microSac nozzle

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Fig. 21

Streamlines across the microSac nozzle holes

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Fig. 22

Steady mass flow rate comparison of the five-hole microSac nozzle

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