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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Modeling of a Steam Turbine Including Partial Arc Admission for Use in a Process Simulation Software Environment

[+] Author and Article Information
Eric Liese

Department of Energy,
National Energy Technology Laboratory,
3610 Collins Ferry Road,
Morgantown, WV 26507-0880
e-mail: eric.liese@netl.doe.gov

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 15, 2014; final manuscript received January 31, 2014; published online June 3, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(11), 112605 (Jun 03, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1029; doi: 10.1115/1.4027255 History: Received January 15, 2014; Revised January 31, 2014

A dynamic process model of a steam turbine, including partial arc admission operation, is presented. Models were made for the first stage and last stage, with the middle stages assumed to have a constant pressure ratio and efficiency. A condenser model is also presented. The paper discusses the function and importance of the steam turbine's entrance design and the first stage. The results for steam turbines with a partial arc entrance are shown and compare well with experimental data available in the literature; in particular, the “valve loop” behavior as the steam flow rate is reduced. This is important to model correctly since it significantly influences the downstream state variables of the steam, and thus the characteristic of the entire steam turbine, e.g., state conditions at extractions, overall turbine flow, and condenser behavior. The importance of the last stage (the stage just upstream of the condenser) in determining the overall flow rate and exhaust conditions to the condenser is described and shown via results.

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References

Chaibakhsh, A., and Ghaffari, A., 2008, “Steam Turbine Model, Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory,” J. Simul. Mod. Prac. Theory, 16(9), pp. 1145–1162. [CrossRef]
Cooke, D. H., 1983, “Modeling of Off-Design Multi-Stage Turbine Pressures by Stodola's Ellipse,” Energy Incorporated 1983 Annual PEPSE User's Group Meeting, Richmond, VA, November 2–3, pp. 205–234.
Spencer, R. C., Cotton, K. C., and Cannon, C. N., 1963, “A Method for Predicting the Performance of Large Steam Turbine Generators....: 16,500 kw and Larger,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 85(4), pp. 249–298. [CrossRef]
Cotton, K. C., 1998, Evaluating and Improving Steam Turbine Performance, 2nd ed., Cotton Fact Inc., Rexford, NY.
Couchman, R. S., Robbins, K. E., and Schofield, P., 1991, “GE Steam Turbine Design Philosophy and Technology Programs,” GE Company, Schenectady, NY, Report No. GER-3705.
Albert, P., 2000, “Steam Turbine Thermal Evaluation and Assessment,” GE Power Systems, Schenectady, NY, Report No. GER-4190.
Nag, P. K., 2008, Power Plant Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing, New Delhi, India.
Reinker, J. K., and Mason, P. B., 1996, “Steam Turbines for Large Power Applications,” GE Power Systems, Schenectady, NY, Report No. GER-3646D.
Kavney, K., Lesiuk, J., and Wright, J., 2006, “Steam Turbine 34.5-Inch Low-Pressure Section Upgrade,” GE Energy, Atlanta, GA, Report No. GER-4269.
Heat Exchange Institute, 1995, Standards for Steam Surface Condensers, 9th ed., Heat Exchange Institute, Inc., Cleveland, OH.

Figures

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Fig. 4

Example TEL curve used in model presented

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Fig. 3

Comparing the general flow and Stodola equation

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Fig. 2

Efficiency movement during sequential valve closings

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Fig. 1

Plot of stage efficiency (Eq. (1)) for various blade reactions

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Fig. 6

Relationship between master position and power

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Fig. 7

First stage trends for partial admission

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Fig. 8

Comparing HP ST efficiencies

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Fig. 9

Temperature entering the reheater

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Fig. 10

Mass flow rate for different control methods

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Fig. 11

Last stage and condenser results

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