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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Diesel-Ignited Gasoline Dual Fuel Combustion in a Single-Cylinder Research Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
U. Dwivedi, C. D. Carpenter, E. S. Guerry, A. C. Polk, S. R. Krishnan

Mississippi State University,
Starkville, MS 39762

K. K. Srinivasan

Mississippi State University,
Starkville, MS 39762
e-mail: srinivasan@me.msstate.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 13, 2014; final manuscript received March 14, 2014; published online May 2, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(10), 101504 (May 02, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1088; doi: 10.1115/1.4027273 History: Received February 13, 2014; Revised March 14, 2014

Diesel-ignited gasoline dual fuel combustion experiments were performed in a single-cylinder research engine (SCRE), outfitted with a common-rail diesel injection system and a stand-alone engine controller. Gasoline was injected in the intake port using a port-fuel injector. The engine was operated at a constant speed of 1500 rev/min, a constant load of 5.2 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), and a constant gasoline energy substitution of 80%. Parameters such as diesel injection timing (SOI), diesel injection pressure, and boost pressure were varied to quantify their impact on engine performance and engine-out indicated specific nitrogen oxide emissions (ISNOx), indicated specific hydrocarbon emissions (ISHC), indicated specific carbon monoxide emissions (ISCO), and smoke emissions. Advancing SOI from 30 degrees before top dead center (DBTDC) to 60 DBTDC reduced ISNOx from 14 g/kW h to less than 0.1 g/kW h; further advancement of SOI did not yield significant ISNOx reduction. A fundamental change was observed from heterogeneous combustion at 30 DBTDC to “premixed enough” combustion at 50–80 DBTDC and finally to well-mixed diesel-assisted gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI)-like combustion at 170 DBTDC. Smoke emissions were less than 0.1 filter smoke number (FSN) at all SOIs, while ISHC and ISCO were in the range of 8–20 g/kW h, with the earliest SOIs yielding very high values. Indicated fuel conversion efficiencies were ∼ 40–42.5%. An injection pressure sweep from 200 to 1300 bar at 50 DBTDC SOI and 1.5 bar intake boost showed that very low injection pressures lead to more heterogeneous combustion and higher ISNOx and ISCO emissions, while smoke and ISHC emissions remained unaffected. A boost pressure sweep from 1.1 to 1.8 bar at 50 DBTDC SOI and 500 bar rail pressure showed very rapid combustion for the lowest boost conditions, leading to high pressure rise rates, higher ISNOx emissions, and lower ISCO emissions, while smoke and ISHC emissions remained unaffected by boost pressure variations.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the single-cylinder engine

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Fig. 2

AHRR schedules at various injection timings at 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pin = 1.5 bar

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Fig. 3

Cylinder pressure schedules and needle lift profiles at various injection timings at 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pin = 1.5 bar

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Fig. 4

MPRR and ignition delay at various injection timings at 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pin = 1.5 bar

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Fig. 5

CA5, CA50 and CA10-90 at various injection timings at 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pin = 1.5 bar

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Fig. 6

Combustion and indicated fuel conversion efficiencies at various injection timings at 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pin = 1.5 bar

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Fig. 7

ISHC and ISCO emissions at various injection timings at 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pin = 1.5 bar

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Fig. 8

ISNOx and smoke emissions at various injection timings at 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pin = 1.5 bar

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Fig. 9

AHRR schedules at various injection pressures at 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pin = 1.5 bar

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Fig. 10

Cylinder pressure schedules at various injection pressures at 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pin = 1.5 bar

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Fig. 11

CA5, CA50 and CA10-90 at various injection pressures at 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pin = 1.5 bar

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Fig. 12

MPRR and Ignition delay at various injection pressures at 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pin = 1.5 bar

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Fig. 13

Combustion and indicated fuel conversion efficiencies at various injection pressures at 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pin = 1.5 bar

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Fig. 14

ISNOx and smoke at various injection pressures at 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pin = 1.5 bar

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Fig. 15

ISHC and ISCO at various injection pressures at 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pin = 1.5 bar

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Fig. 16

Cylinder pressure schedules at various boost pressures, 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pinj = 500 bar

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Fig. 17

AHRR schedules at various boost pressures, 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pinj = 500 bar

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Fig. 18

MPRR, overall equivalence ratio (ϕ), and ignition delay at various boost pressures, 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pinj = 500 bar

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Fig. 19

CA5, CA50, and CA10-90 at various boost pressures, 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pinj = 500 bar

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Fig. 20

Combustion and indicated fuel conversion efficiencies at various boost pressures, 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pinj = 500 bar

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Fig. 21

ISNOx and smoke at various boost pressures, 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pinj = 500 bar

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Fig. 22

ISCO and ISHC emissions at various boost pressures, 5.2 bar IMEP, 80 PES, N = 1500 rpm, Pinj = 500 bar

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