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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Particulate Matter Emission Comparison of Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) and Port Fuel Injection (PFI) Operation of a Boosted Gasoline Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Jianye Su

National Engineering Laboratory for Automotive
Electronic Control Technology,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China;
Walter E. Lay Automotive Laboratory,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Weiyang Lin

Walter E. Lay Automotive Laboratory,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 41809

Jeff Sterniak

Robert Bosch LLC,
Farmington Hills, MI 48331

Min Xu

National Engineering Laboratory for Automotive
Electronic Control Technology,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China

Stanislav V. Bohac

Walter E. Lay Automotive Laboratory,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Contributed by the Coal, Biomass and Alternate Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 14, 2014; final manuscript received February 17, 2014; published online May 5, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(9), 091513 (May 05, 2014) (6 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1090; doi: 10.1115/1.4027274 History: Received February 14, 2014; Revised February 17, 2014

Spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) gasoline engines, especially in downsized boosted engine platforms, are increasing their market share relative to port fuel injection (PFI) engines in U.S., European and Chinese vehicles due to better fuel economy by enabling higher compression ratios and higher specific power output. However, particulate matter (PM) emissions from engines are becoming a concern due to adverse human health and environment effects, and more stringent emission standards. To conduct a PM number and size comparison between SIDI and PFI systems, a 2.0 L boosted gasoline engine has been equipped and tested with both systems at different loads, air fuel ratios, spark timings, fuel pressures and injection timings for SIDI operation and loads, air fuel ratios and spark timings for PFI operation. Regardless of load, air fuel ratio, spark timing, fuel pressure, and injection timing, particle size distribution from SIDI and PFI is shown to be bimodal, exhibiting nucleation and accumulation mode particles. SIDI produces particle numbers that are an order of magnitude greater than PFI. Particle number can be reduced by retarding spark timing and operating the engine lean, both for SIDI and PFI operation. Increasing fuel injection pressure and optimizing injection timing with SIDI also reduces PM emissions. This study provides insight into the differences in PM emissions from boosted SIDI and PFI engines and an evaluation of PM reduction potential by varying engine operating parameters in boosted SIDI and PFI gasoline engines.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Particle size distribution comparison for SIDI and PFI operation at 6, 7, and 8 bar IMEP at 1500 rpm

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Fig. 2

Total particle number concentration comparison for SIDI and PFI at 6, 7, and 8 bar IMEP at 1500 rpm

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Fig. 3

Effect of λ on particle size distribution at 1500 rpm, 8 bar nominal BMEP condition for SIDI operation

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Fig. 4

Effect of λ on particle size distribution at 1500 rpm, 8 bar nominal BMEP condition for PFI operation

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Fig. 5

Effect of spark timing (°bTDC) on SIDI particle size distribution at 1500 rpm, 8 bar nominal BMEP

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Fig. 6

Effect of spark timing (°bTDC) on PFI particle size distribution at 1500 rpm, 8 bar nominal BMEP

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Fig. 7

Effect of start of injection (SOI) (°bTDC) on SIDI particle size distribution at 1500 rpm, 8 bar nominal BMEP

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Fig. 8

Effect of fuel pressure on SIDI particle size distribution at 1500 rpm, 8 bar nominal BMEP

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Fig. 9

Total particle number for each engine operating parameter with respect to baseline condition at 1500 rpm, 8 bar nominal BMEP with SIDI operation

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Fig. 10

Total particle number for each engine operating parameter with respect to baseline condition at 1500 rpm, 8 bar nominal BMEP with PFI operation

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