Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Analysis of Aluminum and Steel Pistons—Comparison of Friction, Piston Temperature, and Combustion

[+] Author and Article Information
Kai Schreer

Pragstrasse 26-46,
Stuttgart 70376, Germany
e-mail: kai.schreer@mahle.com

Ingo Roth

Pragstrasse 26-46,
Stuttgart 70376,Germany
e-mail: ingo.roth@mahle.com

Simon Schneider

MAHLE International GmbH,
Pragstrasse 26-46,
Stuttgart 70376,Germany
e-mail: simon.schneider@mahle.com

Holger Ehnis

MAHLE International GmbH,
Haldenstrasse 94-114,
Stuttgart 70376,Germany
e-mail: holger.ehnis@mahle.com

Contributed by the Coal, Biomass and Alternate Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 14, 2014; final manuscript received February 18, 2014; published online May 2, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(10), 101506 (May 02, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1091; doi: 10.1115/1.4027275 History: Received February 14, 2014; Revised February 18, 2014

While steel pistons have been in use for a long time in commercial vehicle diesel engines, the first series production applications for passenger car diesel engines are currently imminent. The main reason for the use of steel pistons in high speed diesel engines is not, as maybe initially hypothesized, the increasing requirements on the component strength due to increasing mechanical loads, but rather challenges based on the actual CO2-legislation. The increasing requirements to reduce the fuel consumption necessitate new innovative technologies. The imminent penalties for exceeding the prescribed CO2 emissions seem to make the steel piston a viable alternative today, despite its higher manufacturing costs. So far, the CO2-benefits using steel pistons were mainly ascribed to the reduced friction between piston and cylinder liner due to no thermal interference.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
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Fig. 1

Reduction in compression height and influence on the side force

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Fig. 2

Thermal expansion behavior of the aluminum piston (a) and the steel piston (b)

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Fig. 3

Configuration of the two piston variants investigated

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Fig. 4

Parallel investigation of piston temperatures, thermodynamics, and frictional losses

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Fig. 5

Conditioning the test unit to allow stable measurement results

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Fig. 6

Friction result (a) and specific fuel consumption result (b) for daily check operating point OP7

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Fig. 7

Operating points for the tests

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Fig. 8

Friction difference in the engine operating map (positive values: steel piston has lower friction)

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Fig. 9

Loss analysis for the operating point 1500 rpm, 200 Nm mapping point OP4

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Fig. 10

Fuel consumption advantage of the steel piston for all mapping points

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Fig. 11

Fuel consumption benefits at the power curve, Al versus steel piston. ISFC (thermodynamics only) difference versus BSFC (thermodynamics and friction) difference.

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Fig. 12

Change in piston temperature (cylinder 2 thrust side bowl rim, 2000 rpm, 250 Nm) for variations in engine and cooling parameters




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