Turbochargers are a key technology to deliver fuel consumption reductions on future internal combustion engines. However, the current industry standard modeling approaches assume the turbine and compressor operate under adiabatic conditions. Although some state of the art modeling approaches have been presented for simulating the thermal behavior, these have focused on thermally stable conditions. In this work, an instrumented turbocharger was operated on a 2.2 liter diesel engine and in parallel a one-dimensional lumped capacity thermal model was developed. For the first time this paper presents analysis of experimental and modeling results under dynamic engine operating conditions. Engine speed and load conditions were varied to induce thermal transients with turbine inlet temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 °C; warm-up behavior from 25 °C ambient was also studied. Following a model tuning process based on steady operating conditions, the model was used to predict turbine and compressor gas outlet temperatures, doing so with an RMSE of 8.4 and 7.1 °C, respectively. On the turbine side, peak heat losses from the exhaust gases were observed to be up to double those observed under thermally stable conditions due to the heat accumulation in the structure. During warm-up, the model simplifications did not allow for accurate modeling of the compressor, however on the turbine side gas temperature prediction errors were reduced from 150 to around 40 °C. The main benefits from the present modeling approach appear to be in turbine outlet temperature prediction, however modeling improvements are identified for future work.