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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Concept for a Combustion System in Oxyfuel Gas Turbine Combined Cycles

[+] Author and Article Information
Sven Gunnar Sundkvist

Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB,
Finspong SE-612 83, Sweden
e-mail: sven-gunnar.sundkvist@siemens.com

Adrian Dahlquist

Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB,
Finspong SE-612 83, Sweden
e-mail: adrian.dahlquist@siemens.com

Jacek Janczewski

Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB,
Finspong SE-612 83, Sweden
e-mail: jacek.janczewski@siemens.com

Mats Sjödin

Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB,
Finspong SE-612 83, Sweden
e-mail: mats.sjodin@siemens.com

Marie Bysveen

SINTEF Energi AS,
Trondheim NO-7465, Norway
e-mail: marie.bysveen@sintef.no

Mario Ditaranto

SINTEF Energi AS,
Trondheim NO-7465, Norway
e-mail: mario.ditaranto@sintef.no

Øyvind Langørgen

SINTEF Energi AS,
Trondheim NO-7465, Norway
e-mail: oyvind.langorgen@sintef.no

Morten Seljeskog

SINTEF Energi AS,
Trondheim NO-7465, Norway
e-mail: morten.seljeskog@sintef.no

Martin Siljan

Nebb Engineering AS,
Asker NO-1383, Norway
e-mail: martin.siljan@nebb.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 25, 2014; final manuscript received March 10, 2014; published online May 2, 2014. Assoc. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(10), 101513 (May 02, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1122; doi: 10.1115/1.4027296 History: Received February 25, 2014; Revised March 10, 2014

A promising candidate for CO2 neutral power production is semiclosed oxyfuel combustion combined cycles (SCOC-CC). Two alternative SCOC-CCs have been investigated both with recirculation of the working fluid (WF) (CO2 and H2O) but with different H2O content due to different conditions for condensation of water from the working fluid. The alternative with low moisture content in the recirculated working fluid has shown the highest thermodynamic potential and has been selected for further study. The necessity to use recirculated exhaust gas as the working fluid will make the design of the gas turbine quite different from a conventional gas turbine. For a combined cycle using a steam Rankine cycle as a bottoming cycle, it is vital that the temperature of the exhaust gas from the Brayton cycle is well-suited for steam generation that fits steam turbine live steam conditions. For oxyfuel gas turbines with a combustor outlet temperature of the same magnitude as conventional gas turbines, a much higher pressure ratio is required (close to twice the ratio as for a conventional gas turbine) in order to achieve a turbine outlet temperature suitable for combined cycle. Based on input from the optimized cycle calculations, a conceptual combustion system has been developed, where three different combustor feed streams can be controlled independently: the natural gas fuel, the oxidizer consisting mainly of oxygen plus some impurities, and the recirculated working fluid. This gives more flexibility compared to air-based gas turbines, but also introduces some design challenges. A key issue is how to maintain high combustion efficiency over the entire load range using as little oxidizer as possible and with emissions (NOx, CO, unburnt hydrocarbons (UHC)) within given constraints. Other important challenges are related to combustion stability, heat transfer and cooling, and material integrity, all of which are much affected when going from air-based to oxygen-based gas turbine combustion. Matching with existing air-based burner and combustor designs has been done in order to use as much as possible of what is proven technology today. The selected stabilization concept, heat transfer evaluation, burner, and combustion chamber layout will be described. As a next step, the pilot burner will be tested both at atmospheric and high pressure conditions.

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References

Jericha, H., Sanz, W., and Göttlich, E., 2006, “Design Concept for Large Output Graz Cycle Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2006–90032. [CrossRef]
Liu, C. Y., Chen, G., Sipöcz, N., Assadi, M., and Bai, X. S., 2012, “Characteristics of Oxy-Fuel Combustion in Gas Turbines,” Appl. Energy, 89(1), pp. 387–394. [CrossRef]
Hasegawa, T., 2012, “Combustion Performance in a Semiclosed Cycle Gas Turbine for IGCC Fired With CO-Rich Syngas and Oxy-Recirculated Exhaust Streams,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134(9), p. 091401. [CrossRef]
Ditaranto, M., and Hals, J., 2006, “Combustion Instabilities in Sudden Expansion Oxy-Fuel Flames,” Combust. Flame, 146(3), pp. 493–512. [CrossRef]
Kutne, P., Kapadia, B. K., Meier, W., and Aigner, M., 2011, “Experimental Analysis of the Combustion Behavior of Oxyfuel Flames in a Gas Turbine Model Combustor,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 33(2), pp. 3383–3390. [CrossRef]
Hammer, Th., Keyser, J., and Bolland, O., 2009, “Natural Gas Oxy-Fuel Cycles—Part 2: Heat Transfer Analysis of a Gas Turbine,” Energy Procedia, 1(1), pp. 557–564. [CrossRef]
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Ditaranto, M., 2011, “Description of a High Pressure Oxy-Fuel Combustion Facility HIPROX,” 2nd Oxyfuel Combustion Conference, Yeepoon, Australia, September 12–16.

Figures

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Fig. 2

Layout of the HMOC

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Fig. 3

Schematic model of the combustor

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Fig. 4

Laminar flame speed for the base case as a function of dilution with working fluid

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Fig. 5

Adiabatic flame temperature for the base case as a function of dilution with working fluid

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Fig. 6

Adiabatic flame temperature (above) and laminar flame speed (below) for the OCC case as a function of dilution with working fluid and comparison with relevant data from an air case

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Fig. 7

Reactor network representation of the model combustor

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Fig. 8

Temperature through combustor and turbine as a function of the working fluid share a3 to the dilution

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Fig. 9

CO, O2, and NOx concentration as a function of the working fluid share a3 to the dilution zone

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Fig. 10

CO and O2 concentration as a function of oxygen excess for the case with a3 equal to 0.4

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Fig. 11

Overall design features of the OXYGT test combustor

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