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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Design, Evaluation and Performance Analysis of Staged Low Emission Combustors

[+] Author and Article Information
Bhupendra Khandelwal

Mechanical Engineering Department,
The University of Sheffield,
Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
e-mail: bhupendra.khandelwal@gmail.com

Olamilekan Banjo

School of Engineering,
Cranfield University,
Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK

Vishal Sethi

School of Engineering,
Cranfield University,
Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
e-mail: v.sethi@cranfield.ac.uk

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 2, 2013; final manuscript received March 22, 2014; published online May 2, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Klaus Dobbeling.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(10), 101501 (May 02, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1291; doi: 10.1115/1.4027357 History: Received August 02, 2013; Revised March 22, 2014

The most uncertain and challenging part in the design of a gas turbine has long been the combustion chamber. There has been a large number of experimentations in industry and universities alike to better understand the dynamic and complex processes that occur inside a combustion chamber. This study concentrates on gas turbine combustors, as a whole, and formulates a theoretical design procedure for staged combustors, in particular. Not much of the literature currently available in the public domain provides intensive study on designing staged combustors. The work covers an extensive study of the design methods applied in conventional combustor designs, which includes the reverse flow combustor and the axial flow annular combustors. The knowledge acquired from this study is then applied to develop a theoretical design methodology for double staged (radial and axial) low emission annular combustors. Additionally, a model combustor is designed for each type, radial and axial, of staging using the developed methodology. A prediction of the performance of the model combustors is executed. The main conclusion is that the dimensions of the model combustors obtained from the developed design methodology are within the feasibility limits. The comparison between the radially staged and the axially staged combustor has yielded the predicted results such as a lower NOx prediction for the latter and a shorter combustor length for the former. The NOx emission results of the new combustor models are found to be in the range of 50–60 ppm. However, the predicted NOx results are only very crude and need further detailed study.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Flow chart of the classic combustor design methodology [2]

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Fig. 2

Relation between the combustion efficiency and θ-parameter [11]

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Fig. 3

Scheme of a dump diffuser [1]

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Fig. 5

Graph showing the value of θ corresponding to the least total pressure loss (in gradient) and selected pressure loss for the model combustor (in black) with respect to the area ratio

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Fig. 6

Geometric parameters of an axial swirler

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Fig. 9

Typical double cooling wall (adapted from Ref. [6])

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Fig. 7

Jet from a hole into a cross flow [6]

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Fig. 10

Double annular ram induction combustor sketch [17]

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Fig. 11

Combustion efficiencies at FAR = 0.010

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Fig. 12

Combustion efficiencies at FAR = 0.015

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Fig. 16

NOx emissions at various operating conditions for FAR = 0.010 and 0.015

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Fig. 17

Radially staged combustor flame tube with cooling and dilution holes

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Fig. 18

Axially staged double annular combustor flame tube

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Fig. 19

3-D rendering of the model swirler

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Fig. 13

Variation of efficiency with the change in Vd and Vp

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Fig. 14

Result of combustion efficiency versus Pt3 for different FAR

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Fig. 15

Graph of combustion efficiency versus Pt3 for variable FAR [17]

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