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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Coal, Biomass, and Alternative Fuels

Effect of Volatiles on Soot Based Deposit Layers

[+] Author and Article Information
Ashwin Salvi

University of Michigan,
1231 Beal Avenue, Room 1105,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: asalvi@umich.edu

John Hoard

University of Michigan,
1231 Beal Avenue, Room 1012,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: hoardjw@umich.edu

Mitchell Bieniek

University of Michigan,
1231 Beal Avenue, Room 1105,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: bieniekm@umich.edu

Mehdi Abarham

Ford Motor Company,
760 Town Center Drive,
Dearborn, MI 48126
e-mail: abarham@umich.edu

Dan Styles

Ford Motor Company,
760 Town Center Drive,
Dearborn, MI 48126
e-mail: dstyles@ford.com

Dionissios Assanis

Stony Brook University,
100 Nicolls Road,
Stony Brook, NY 11794
e-mail: dennis.assanis@stonybrook.edu

Contributed by the Coal, Biomass and Alternate Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 13, 2014; final manuscript received March 17, 2014; published online May 16, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(11), 111401 (May 16, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1084; doi: 10.1115/1.4027460 History: Received February 13, 2014; Revised March 17, 2014

The implementation of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers has recently been a widespread methodology for engine in-cylinder NOx reduction. A common problem with the use of EGR coolers is the tendency for a deposit, or fouling layer to form through thermophoresis. These deposit layers consist of soot and volatiles and reduce the effectiveness of heat exchangers at decreasing exhaust gas outlet temperatures, subsequently increasing engine out NOx emission. This paper presents results from a novel visualization rig that allows for the development of a deposit layer while providing optical and infrared access. A 24 h, 379-micron-thick deposit layer was developed and characterized with an optical microscope, an infrared camera, and a thermogravimetric analyzer. The in situ thermal conductivity of the deposit layer was calculated to be 0.047 W/mK. Volatiles from the layer were then evaporated off and the layer reanalyzed. Results suggest that the removal of volatile components affect the thermophysical properties of the deposit. Hypotheses supporting these results are presented.

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References

Abarham, M., Zamankhan, P., Hoard, J. W., Styles, D., Sluder, C. S., Storey, J. M. E., Lance, M. J., and Assanis, D., 2013, “CFD Analysis of Particle Transport in Axi-Symmetric Tube Flows Under the Influence of Thermophoretic Force,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 61, pp. 94–105. [CrossRef]
Prabhakar, B., and Boehman, A. L., 2013, “Effect of Engine Operating Conditions and Coolant Temperature on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Deposits From an Automotive Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power, 135(2), p. 022801. [CrossRef]
Sluder, C. S., Storey, J. M. E., Lewis, S. A., Styles, D., Giuliano, J., and Hoard, J. W., 2008, “Hydrocarbons and Particulate Matter in EGR Cooler Deposits: Effects of Gas Flow Rate, Coolant Temperature, and Oxidation Catalyst,” SAE Int. J. Eng., 1(1), pp. 1196–1204. [CrossRef]
Abarham, M., Zamankhan, P., Hoard, J., Assanis, D., Styles, D., Sluder, S., and Storey, J., 2011, “Eulerian CFD Models to Predict Thermophoretic Deposition of Soot Particles in EGR Coolers,” 17th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research Conference (DEER), Detroit, MI, October 3–6.
Abarham, M., Hoard, J., Assanis, D., Styles, D., Curtis, E., and Ramesh, N., 2010, “Review of Soot Deposition and Removal Mechanisms in EGR Coolers,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 3(1), pp. 690–704. [CrossRef]
Abarham, M., Hoard, J. W., Assanis, D., Styles, D., Sluder, C. S., and Storey, J. M. E., 2010, “An Analytical Study of Thermophoretic Particulate Deposition in Turbulent Pipe Flows,” Aerosol Sci. Technol., 44(9), pp. 785–795. [CrossRef]
Abarham, M., Hoard, J., Assanis, D., Styles, D., Curtis, E. W., Ramesh, N., Sluder, C. S., and Storey, J. M. E., 2009, “Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Hydrocarbon Condensation in EGR Coolers,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 2(1), pp. 921–931. [CrossRef]
Lepperhoff, G., and Houben, M., 1993, “Mechanisms of Deposit Formation in Internal Combustion Engines and Heat Exchangers,” SAE Technical Paper No. 931032. [CrossRef]
Lance, M. J., Sluder, C. S., Wang, H., and Storey, J. M. E., 2009, “Direct Measurement of EGR Cooler Deposit Thermal Properties for Improved Understanding of Cooler Fouling,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1461. [CrossRef]
Salvi, A. A., Hoard, J., Jagarlapudi, P., Pornphaithoonsakun, T., Collao, K., Assanis, D. N., Styles, D. J., Abarham, M., and Curtis, E. W., 2013, “Optical and Infrared In-Situ Measurements of EGR Cooler Fouling,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2013-01-1289. [CrossRef]
Abarham, M., Chafekar, T., Salvi, A., Hoard, J. W., Styles, D., Scott Sluder, C., and Assanis, D., 2013, “In-Situ Visualization of Exhaust Soot Particle Deposition and Removal in Channel Flows,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 87, pp. 359–370. [CrossRef]
Abarham, M., Chafekar, T., Hoard, J., Styles, D., and Assanis, D., 2012, “A Visualization Test Setup for Investigation of Water-Deposit Interaction in a Surrogate Rectangular Cooler Exposed to Diesel Exhaust Flow,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2012-01-0364. [CrossRef]
Styles, D., Curtis, E., Ramesh, N., Hoard, J., Assanis, D., Abarham, M., Sluder, S., Storey, J., and Lance, M., 2010, “Factors Impacting EGR Cooler Fouling: Main Effects and Interactions,” 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emission Research Conference (DEER), Detroit, MI, September 27–30.
Hoard, J., Abarham, M., Styles, D., Giuliano, J. M., Sluder, C. S., and Storey, J. M. E., 2008, “Diesel EGR Cooler Fouling,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2008-01-2475. [CrossRef]
Sluder, C. S., Storey, J., Lance, M. J., and Barone, T., 2013, “Removal of EGR Cooler Deposit Material by Flow-Induced Shear,” SAE Int. J. Eng., 6(2), pp. 999–1008. [CrossRef]
Abarham, M., 2011, “Investigation of Nano-Particulate Transport in Non-Isothermal Turbulent Internal Flows,” Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Sluder, C. S., and Storey, J. M. E., 2008, “EGR Cooler Performance and Degradation: Effects of Biodiesel Blends,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2008-01-2473. [CrossRef]

Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of test rig with heat flux probes

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Fig. 2

Schematic of heat flux probes in flow path

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Fig. 3

Picture looking down on heat flux probes before deposit build

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Fig. 4

Infrared image of heat flux probes after deposit layer build-up

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Fig. 5

3D image of deposit surface after 24 h deposit build, 150×magnification

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Fig. 6

3D image of deposit surface after 24 h deposit build, 250×magnification

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Fig. 7

Twenty-four hour deposit thermal conductivity on downstream probe

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Fig. 8

3D image after bakeout, 150×magnification

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Fig. 9

3D image after bakeout, 250×magnification

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Fig. 10

Deposit surface temperature for 24 h prebake, 24 h bake 1, and 24 h bake 2

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Fig. 11

Temperature across deposit layer thickness for 24 h prebake, 24 h bake 1, and 24 h bake 2

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Fig. 12

Heat flux through deposit layer for 24 h prebake, 24 h bake 1, and 24 h bake 2

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Fig. 13

Deposit conductivity for 24 h prebake, 24 h bake 1, and 24 h bake 2

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Fig. 14

Deposit conductivity replotted as a function of surface temperature

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Fig. 15

Twenty-four hour layer prebake 1, 50×

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Fig. 16

Twenty-four hour layer postbake 1, 50×

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Fig. 17

Deposit conductivity as a function of porosity and temperature, adapted from [16]

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Fig. 18

TGA on pre- and postbake deposit layer

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