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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Coal, Biomass, and Alternative Fuels

Effect of Volatiles on Soot Based Deposit Layers

[+] Author and Article Information
Ashwin Salvi

University of Michigan,
1231 Beal Avenue, Room 1105,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: asalvi@umich.edu

John Hoard

University of Michigan,
1231 Beal Avenue, Room 1012,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: hoardjw@umich.edu

Mitchell Bieniek

University of Michigan,
1231 Beal Avenue, Room 1105,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: bieniekm@umich.edu

Mehdi Abarham

Ford Motor Company,
760 Town Center Drive,
Dearborn, MI 48126
e-mail: abarham@umich.edu

Dan Styles

Ford Motor Company,
760 Town Center Drive,
Dearborn, MI 48126
e-mail: dstyles@ford.com

Dionissios Assanis

Stony Brook University,
100 Nicolls Road,
Stony Brook, NY 11794
e-mail: dennis.assanis@stonybrook.edu

Contributed by the Coal, Biomass and Alternate Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 13, 2014; final manuscript received March 17, 2014; published online May 16, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(11), 111401 (May 16, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1084; doi: 10.1115/1.4027460 History: Received February 13, 2014; Revised March 17, 2014

The implementation of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers has recently been a widespread methodology for engine in-cylinder NOx reduction. A common problem with the use of EGR coolers is the tendency for a deposit, or fouling layer to form through thermophoresis. These deposit layers consist of soot and volatiles and reduce the effectiveness of heat exchangers at decreasing exhaust gas outlet temperatures, subsequently increasing engine out NOx emission. This paper presents results from a novel visualization rig that allows for the development of a deposit layer while providing optical and infrared access. A 24 h, 379-micron-thick deposit layer was developed and characterized with an optical microscope, an infrared camera, and a thermogravimetric analyzer. The in situ thermal conductivity of the deposit layer was calculated to be 0.047 W/mK. Volatiles from the layer were then evaporated off and the layer reanalyzed. Results suggest that the removal of volatile components affect the thermophysical properties of the deposit. Hypotheses supporting these results are presented.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of test rig with heat flux probes

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Fig. 2

Schematic of heat flux probes in flow path

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Fig. 3

Picture looking down on heat flux probes before deposit build

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Fig. 4

Infrared image of heat flux probes after deposit layer build-up

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Fig. 5

3D image of deposit surface after 24 h deposit build, 150×magnification

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Fig. 6

3D image of deposit surface after 24 h deposit build, 250×magnification

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Fig. 7

Twenty-four hour deposit thermal conductivity on downstream probe

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Fig. 8

3D image after bakeout, 150×magnification

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Fig. 9

3D image after bakeout, 250×magnification

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Fig. 10

Deposit surface temperature for 24 h prebake, 24 h bake 1, and 24 h bake 2

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Fig. 11

Temperature across deposit layer thickness for 24 h prebake, 24 h bake 1, and 24 h bake 2

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Fig. 12

Heat flux through deposit layer for 24 h prebake, 24 h bake 1, and 24 h bake 2

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Fig. 13

Deposit conductivity for 24 h prebake, 24 h bake 1, and 24 h bake 2

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Fig. 14

Deposit conductivity replotted as a function of surface temperature

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Fig. 15

Twenty-four hour layer prebake 1, 50×

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Fig. 16

Twenty-four hour layer postbake 1, 50×

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Fig. 17

Deposit conductivity as a function of porosity and temperature, adapted from [16]

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Fig. 18

TGA on pre- and postbake deposit layer

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