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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Low-Speed Model Testing Studies for an Exit Stage of High Pressure Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Chenkai Zhang

College of Energy and Power Engineering,
Nanjing University
of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory
of Aerospace Power System,
Co-Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engine,
Nanjing 210016, China
e-mail: zckkite2006@126.com

Zhiqiang Wang

College of Energy and Power Engineering,
Nanjing University
of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory
of Aerospace Power System,
Co-Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engine,
Nanjing 210016, China
e-mail: wangzq1981@126.com

Chao Yin

College of Energy and Power Engineering,
Nanjing University
of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory
of Aerospace Power System,
Co-Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engine,
Nanjing 210016, China
e-mail: yinchao_nuaa@126.com

Wei Yan

College of Energy and Power Engineering,
Nanjing University
of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory
of Aerospace Power System,
Co-Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engine,
Nanjing 210016, China
e-mail: yanwei0406@hotmail.com

Jun Hu

College of Energy and Power Engineering,
Nanjing University
of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory
of Aerospace Power System,
Co-Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engine,
Nanjing 210016, China
e-mail: hjape@nuaa.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received April 20, 2014; final manuscript received May 4, 2014; published online May 28, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(11), 112603 (May 28, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1204; doi: 10.1115/1.4027637 History: Received April 20, 2014; Revised May 04, 2014

This paper discusses detailed experimental studies of a low-speed large-scale axial compressor, which is typical of an exit stage of HPC. Numerous measuring techniques were performed, and detailed experimental results were obtained, including inlet boundary layer total pressure distributions, overall compressor and model-stage performance, traverse flow field between blade rows and inside the stator for the model stage, static pressure on the stator blade and casing dynamic pressure of the rotor. The objective of the study is to assess the low-speed model compressor design and verify 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Results show that inlet endwall blockage requirement of HPC exit stage is achieved; the low-speed model compressor design is fundamentally successful; the flow rate and pressure rise requirements are met at the design operating point, although the flow loss is relatively larger than design values for the lower half span, which can be attributed to a certain hub-corner separation. Furthermore, the reliability of adopted 3D commercial CFD code is validated. It is proved that the low-speed model testing technique is still a prospective way for the design of high performance HPC.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
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References

Wisler, D. C., 1977, “Core Compressor Exit Stage Study, Volume I—Blading Design,” National Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Report No. NASA CR-135391.
Wisler, D. C., 1985, “Loss Reduction in Axial-Flow Compressor Through Low-Speed Model Testing,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 107(2), pp. 354–363. [CrossRef]
Wisler, D. C., Halstead, D. E., and Beacher, B. F., 1999, “Improving Compressor and Turbine Performance Through Cost-Effective Low-Speed Testing,” 14th International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, Florence, Italy, September 5–10, ISABE Paper No. 99-7073.
Lyes, P. A., and Ginder, R. B., 1998, “Experimental Evaluation of the High-to-Low Speed Transformation Process for a Highly Loaded Core Compressor Stage,” ASME Paper No. 98-GT-334.
Lyes, P. A., and Ginder, R. B., 1999, “Low-Speed Compressor Tests of Swept and Bowed Blade Designs,” 14th International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, Florence, Italy, September 5–10, ISABE Paper No. 99-7048.
Lyes, P. A., 1999, “Low Speed Axial Compressor Design and Evaluation; High Speed Representation and Endwall Flow Control Studies,” Ph.D. thesis, Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK.
Gallimore, S. J., Bolger, J. J., Cumpsty, N. A., Taylor, M. J., Wright, P. I., and Place, J. M. M., 2002, “The Use of Sweep and Dihedral in Multistage Axial Flow Compressor Blading—Part I: University Research and Methods Development,” ASME J. Turbomach., 124(4), pp. 521–532. [CrossRef]
Gallimore, S. J., Bolger, J. J., Cumpsty, N. A., Taylor, M. J., Wright, P. I., and Place, J. M. M., 2002, “The Use of Sweep and Dihedral in Multistage Axial Flow Compressor Blading—Part II: Low and High-Speed Designs and Test Verification,” ASME J. Turbomach., 124(4), pp. 533–541. [CrossRef]
Clemen, C., Schrapp, H., Gümmer, V., Müller, R., Künzelmann, M., and Vogeler, K., 2008, “Design of a Highly-Loaded Four-Stage Low-Speed Research Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-50254. [CrossRef]
Lange, M., Vogeler, M. K., Mailach, R., and Elorza-Gomez, S., 2012, “An Experimental Verification of a New Design for Cantilevered Stators With Large Hub Clearances,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-68344. [CrossRef]
Zhiqiang, W., 2010, “Research on the Method of Low-Speed Model Testing for High Pressure Compressor,” Ph.D. thesis, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China.
Zhiqiang, W., Jun, H., Yingfeng, W., and Xianchao, Z., 2010, “Aerodynamic Design of Low-Speed Model Compressor for Low-Speed Model Testing,” Acta Aeronaut. Astronaut. Sin., 31(4), pp. 715–723.
Zhiqiang, W., Jun, H., Yingfeng, W., and Liqun, R., 2012, “Low Speed Model Testing for High Pressure Compressor,” Acta Aeronaut. Astronaut. Sin., 33(5), pp. 828–838. [CrossRef]
Chenkai, Z., Jun, H., Zhiqiang, W., and Xiang, G., 2014, “Design Work of a Compressor Stage Through High-to-Low Speed Compressor Transformation,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(6), p. 064501. [CrossRef]
Smith, L. H. Jr., 1970, “Casing Boundary Layers in Multistage Axial-Flow Compressors,” Flow Research on Blading, L. S.Dzung, ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 275–304.
Koch, C., and Smith, L., 1976, “Loss Sources and Magnitudes in Axial-Flow Compressors,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 98(3), pp. 411–424. [CrossRef]
Koch, C., 1981, “Stalling Pressure Rise Capability of Axial Flow Compressor Stages,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 103(4), pp. 645–656. [CrossRef]
Wagner, J. H., Dring, R. P., and Joslyn, H. D., 1985, “Inlet Boundary Layer Effects in an Axial Compressor Rotor: Part I—Blade-to-Blade Effects,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 107(2), pp. 374–380. [CrossRef]

Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of compressor test rig

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Fig. 2

Probes for regular flow field measurements

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Fig. 3

Three-DOF displacement mechanism

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Fig. 4

Stator blade embedded with pressure taps (70% blade height)

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Fig. 5

Arrangement of high-response pressure transducers

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Fig. 6

Grid distribution for the computational zone

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Fig. 7

Effects of inlet duct length preceded cowling to inlet boundary layer thickness

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Fig. 8

Radial distribution of normalized velocity

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Fig. 9

Effect of flow-rate to inlet distribution

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Fig. 10

Low-speed compressor performance characteristics: (a) pressure ratio and (b) efficiency

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Fig. 11

Pressure-rise characteristics of the model stage

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Fig. 12

Mach number contours for the inlet and exit planes of model stage

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Fig. 13

Normalized absolute pressure contours for inlet and exit of model stage

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Fig. 14

Distribution of absolute flow angle for model stage inlet and exit

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Fig. 15

Normalized total pressure distributions for rotor inlet, exit, and stator exit

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Fig. 16

Spanwise distributions of rotor incidence and deviation angles

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Fig. 17

Spanwise distributions of stator incidence and deviation angles

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Fig. 18

Distribution of rotor diffusion factor

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Fig. 19

Distribution of stator diffusion factor

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Fig. 20

Distribution of rotor total pressure loss

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Fig. 21

Distribution of stator total pressure loss

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Fig. 22

Casing static pressure coefficient contour of the rotor at design point

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Fig. 23

Comparisons of static pressure contour for the experimental and CFD results

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Fig. 24

Blade surface pressure coefficient distributions along the chord for stator

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Fig. 25

Detailed Mach number contour for the measuring planes in the stator passage

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Fig. 26

Detailed total pressure recovery coefficient contour for the measuring planes in the stator passage

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