0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Structures and Dynamics

Modular Bearing Designs to Cope With the New Engine Designs Demanding High Performance, Lead-Free Solutions, and Robustness

[+] Author and Article Information
Rainer Aufischer, Martin Offenbecher, Gunther Hager

Miba Bearing Group,
Laakirchen A 4663, Austria

Rick Walker

Miba Bearings US, LLC,
McConnelsville, OH 43756

Contributed by the Structures and Dynamics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 20, 2014; final manuscript received March 12, 2014; published online July 15, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(12), 122505 (Jul 15, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1115; doi: 10.1115/1.4027779 History: Received February 20, 2014; Revised March 12, 2014

Engine development, driven by environmental considerations outlined in the different emission regulations, fuel economy, and fuel availability in combination with economical boundary conditions, needs new approaches in bearing material and design. Since gas engines are gaining market share and firing pressures increase in diesel engines in order to fulfill fuel economy, a special focus has also been taken to tailor-made bearings for these applications. This complex task has to consider lining compound material strength and stability under different conditions like oil condition and dilution. Thin overlays with long-term wear resistance and mixed friction capabilities as well as robust design for extraordinary events like dirt shock loading or adaptations at the engine start are necessary. To fulfill all these requirements, different tasks have to be considered: (1) bearing lining and steel shell compound to fulfill assembly requirements to combine a safe bearing seat with antifretting and high strength with base tribological characteristics, (2) design and use of different layers to compensate weakness of the one layer with the strength of another layer, (3) incorporation of special running conditions and cost reduction approaches in the layer design like polymer coatings for start stop and shaft designs with rougher surface finishes, and (4) bearing design incorporating special shapes to cope better with deflections and geometric deficiencies of a special engine design or application In this publication, existing and new lining compound approaches, including lead-free designs, a variety of different overlays from electroplated, polymer and sputtered ones, are briefly described. Additionally, it is explained how these layers are combined and how they work together to improve bearing performance. Testing of the bearing components and designs on bearing test rigs with new test conditions considering dirt shock and misalignment and their confirmation by engine running experiences are given for a gas engine and a high speed diesel engine applications. A special outlook on how this approach can be extended to other applications for the sake of robustness, cost reduction, or performance increase will summarize the paper.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

United States Code of Federal Regulations, 2013, Title 40: “Protection of Environment,” Part 1039—“Controls of Emissions From New and In-Use Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
United States Code of Federal Regulations, 2013, Title 40: “Protection of Environment,” Part 1033—“Controls of Emissions From Locomotives,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
United States Code of Federal Regulations, 2013, Title 40: “Protection of Environment,” Part 1034—“Controls of Emissions From New and In-Use Marine Compression-Ignition Engines and Vessels,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Walsh, M., 2009, “Global Trends in Emission Legislation Strategy,” 6th AVL International Commercial Powertrain Conference, Graz, Austria, April 28–29, pp. 36–45.
Moser, X., 2009, “On Road and Non Road Powertrains, Different Markets, Common Challenges and Similar Solutions,” 6th AVL International Commercial Powertrain Conference, Graz, Austria, April 28–29, pp. 8–13.
Flynn, P., Hall, E., and Primus, R., 2008, “GE Perspective on Government and Market Dynamics for Medium Speed Engines,” 6th AVL International Commercial Powertrain Conference, Graz, Austria, April 28–29.
Menzel, S., Sander, U., and Raindl, 2013, “The New MTU Type L64 of Series 276 4000 Gas Engines,” 8th Dessau Gas Engine Conference, Dessau, Germany, March 21–22.
Hills, D. A., and Nowell, D., 1994, Mechanics of Fretting Fatigue, Kluwer Academic Publishers SMIA, Dordrecht, Netherlands.
Hoeppner, D. W., Chandrasekaran, V., and Elliot, C. B., 2000, “Fretting Fatigue, Current Technology and Practices,” ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, Stock No. STP 1367.
Tellier, K., Delafargue, G., and Harrington, K., 2010, “Next Generation of Gas Engine Lubrication,” 26th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engine Technology (CIMAC 2010), Bergen, Norway, June 14–17, Paper No. 258.
Offenbecher, M., Gruen, F., Lainem, E., and Pondicherry, K., 2013, “Novel Trends in Journal Slide Bearing Technology—Active Use of Tribo-Chemical Effects,” 27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engine Technology (CIMAC 2013), Shanghai, China, May 13–16, Paper No. 78.
Miba Bearings Group, 2013, “Miba Bearing Manual,” Miba Bearings US, McConnelsville, OH.
Walker, R., Aufischer, R., Mergen, R., and Ciacci, 2006, “Advantages and Limitations of Lead Free Bearing Materials,” ASME Paper No. ICES2006-1394. [CrossRef]
Blau, P. J., ed., 1992, “Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology,” ASM Handbook, Vol. 18, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, pp. 741–756.
Gaertner, W., Aufischer, R., Humer, J., Rumpf, T., 2003, “Advanced Bearing Designs for Gas and Alternative Fuel Engines,” ASME Paper No. ICES2003-608. [CrossRef]
Mergen, R., Lang, H., and Harreither, L., 2004, “Synthetic Coated Bearings as Future Alternative for Large Engines,” CIMAC 2004 Kyoto, Japan, Paper No. 65.
Khonsari, M. M., and Booser, E. R., 2008, Applied Tribology: Bearing Design and Lubrication, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons Ltd., West Sussex, UK, pp. 201–261.
Forstner, C., and Mairhofer, G., 2007, “Application Orientated Bearing Testing,” 25th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engine Technology (CIMAC 2007), Vienna, Austria, May 21–24, Paper No. 246.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Seizure resistance of the different lining compounds

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Tribological working principle and performance characteristics of different overlays

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Fatigue strength of different lining compounds

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Friction behavior of different materials against steel of typical bearing housing in engines

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Fretting test apparatus and test specimen

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Bearing design incorporating bimetal bearing with antifretting bearing back layer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Miba 69—lead free high performance bearing design

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Misalignment results of different bearing types

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Dirt sensitivity of existing overlays

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In