0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Computational Analysis of Combustion of High and Low Cetane Fuels in a Compression Ignition Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Chaitanya Kavuri

Carnegie Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213

Satbir Singh

Carnegie Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
e-mail: satbirs@andrew.cmu.edu

Sundar Rajan Krishnan, Kalyan Kumar Srinivasan

Mississippi State University,
Mississippi State, MS 39762

Stephen Ciatti

Argonne National Laboratory,
Argonne, IL 60439

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received April 28, 2014; final manuscript received May 28, 2014; published online July 15, 2014. Editor: David Wisler. The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States government purposes.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(12), 121506 (Jul 15, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1214; doi: 10.1115/1.4027927 History: Received April 28, 2014; Revised May 28, 2014

Past research has shown that the combustion of low cetane fuels in compression ignition (CI) engines results in higher fuel conversion efficiencies. However, when high-cetane fuels such as diesel are substituted with low-cetane fuels such as gasoline, the engine operation tends to suffer from high carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at low loads and combustion noise at high loads. In this paper, we present a computational analysis of a light-duty CI engine operating on diesel, kerosene and gasoline. These three fuels cover a range of cetane numbers (CNs) from 46 for diesel to 25 for gasoline. Similar to experiments, the model predicted higher CO emissions at low load operation with gasoline. Predictions of in-cylinder details were utilized to understand differences in combustion characteristics of the three fuels. The in-cylinder mass contours and the evolution of model predicted in-cylinder mixture in Φ–T coordinates were then used to explain the emission trends. From the analysis, overmixing due to early single injection was identified as the reason for high CO emissions with low load gasoline low temperature combustion (LTC). Additional simulations were performed by introducing techniques like cetane enhancement, adding hot exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and variation of the injection scheme. Their effects on low load gasoline LTC were studied. Finally, it is shown that use of a dual pulse injection scheme with hot EGR helped to reduce the CO emissions for low load gasoline LTC while maintaining low NOx emissions.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Thring, R., 1989, “Homogenous-Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 892068. [CrossRef]
Ra, Y., Loeper, P., Andrie, M., Krieger, R., Foster, D., Reitz, R. D., and Durrett, R., 2012, “Gasoline DICI Engine Operation in the LTC Regime Using Triple-Pulse Injection,” SAE Int. J. Eng., 5(3), pp. 1109–1132. [CrossRef]
Kalghatgi, G. T., Risberg, P., and Angstrom, H.-E., 2007, “Partially Premixed Auto-Ignition of Gasoline to Attain Low Smoke and Low NOx at High Load in a Compression Ignition Engine and Comparison With a Diesel Fuel,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0006. [CrossRef]
Subramanian, S., and Ciatti, C., 2011, “Low Cetane Fuels in Compression Ignition Engine to Achieve LTC,” ASME 2011 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, Morgantown, WV, October 2–5, ASME Paper No. ICEF2011-60014. [CrossRef]
Adhikary, B. D., Ra, Y., Reitz, R. D., and Ciatti, S., 2012, “Numerical Optimization of a Light-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled With Low-Octane Gasoline,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2012-01-1336. [CrossRef]
Ra, Y., and Reitz, R. D., 2008, “A Reduced Chemical Kinetic Model for IC Engine Combustion Simulations With Primary Reference Fuels,” Combust. Flame, 155(4), pp. 713–738. [CrossRef]
Bowman, C. T., Hanson, R. K., Davidson, D. F., Gardiner, W. C., Jr., Lissianski, V., Smith, G. P., Golden, D. M., Frenklach, M., and Goldenberg, M., 1997, “What's New in GRI-Mech 2.11,” http://diesel.me.berkeley.edu/~gri_mech/new21/version21/text21.html
Reitz, R. D., 1987, “Modeling Atomization Processes in High-Pressure Vaporizing Sprays,” Atomization Spray Tech., 3(4), pp. 309–337.
Schmidt, D. P., and Rutland, C. J., 2000, “A New Droplet Collision Algorithm,” J. Comput. Phys., 164(1), pp. 62–80. [CrossRef]
Liu, A. B., Mather, D. K., and Reitz, R. D., 1993, “Effects of Drop Drag and Breakup on Fuel Sprays,” SAE Technical Paper No. 930072. [CrossRef]
Naber, J., and Reitz, R. D., 1988, “Modeling Engine Spray/Wall Impingement,” SAE Technical Paper No. 880107. [CrossRef]
Ra, Y., and Reitz, R. D., 2009, “A Vaporization Model for Discrete Multi-Component Fuel Sprays,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 35(2), pp. 101–117. [CrossRef]
Kong, S. C., Han, Z., and Reitz, R. D., 1995, “The Development and Application of a Diesel Ignition and Combustion Model for Multidimensional Engine Simulations,” SAE Technical Paper 950278. [CrossRef]
Richards, K. J., Senecal, P. K., and Pomraning, E., 2008, Converge 1.4.1 User Manual and Reference, Convergent Science Inc., Middleton, WI, pp. 330–334.
Flynn, P. F., 2000, “Chemistry Limits on Minimum in-Cylinder NOx Production for Internal Combustion Engines,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2000-04-0393. [CrossRef]
Magnus, A., and Dec, J. E., 2005, “An Investigation Into Lowest Acceptable Combustion Temperatures for Hydrocarbon Fuels in HCCI Engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 30(2), pp. 2719–2726. [CrossRef]
Ciatti, S., Subramanian, S., and Ferris, A., 2012, “Effect of EGR in a Gasoline Operated Diesel Engine in LTC Mode,” ASME 2012 Internal Combustion Engine Division Spring Technical Conference, Torino, Italy, May 6–9, ASME Paper No. ICES2012-81010. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Engine out NOx and CO emissions versus BMEP for gasoline [4]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Mesh on a cut plane through the spray

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

HRR profiles of the three fuels at 2 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

HRR profiles of the three fuels at 5 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

HRR profiles of the three fuels at 12 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Model predicted NOx emissions comparison

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Model predicted CO emissions comparison

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Model predicted HC emissions comparison

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Φ-T plot comparison at 2 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Φ-T plot comparison at 5 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Φ-T plot comparison at 12 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Temperature-residence time comparison at 2 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

T-residence time comparison at 5 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

T-residence time comparison at 12 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

In-cylinder CO mass, equivalence ratio and temperature contours

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

In-cylinder CO mass in Φ-T co-ordinates at SOC, peak HRR, late in expansion stroke, and EVO

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

NOx comparison with cetane enhancement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

CO comparison with cetane enhancement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

HC comparison with cetane enhancement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Emissions comparison with EGR

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

HRR comparison of single pulse and dual pulse injection schemes with varying EGR

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Emission comparison of single pulse and dual pulse injection schemes with varying EGR

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In