In this paper, the entity model of a 1.5 MW offshore wind turbine blade was built by Pro/Engineer software. Fluid flow control equations described by arbitrary Lagrange–Euler (ALE) were established, and the theoretical model of geometrically nonlinear vibration characteristics under fluid–structure interaction (FSI) was given. The simulation of offshore turbulent wind speed was achieved by programming in Matlab. The brandish displacement, the Mises stress distribution and nonlinear dynamic response curves were obtained. Furthermore, the influence of turbulence and FSI on blade dynamic characteristics was studied. The results show that the response curves of maximum brandish displacement and maximum Mises stress present the attenuation trends. The region of the maximum displacement and maximum stress and their variations at different blade positions are revealed. It was shown that the contribution of turbulence effect (TE) on displacement and stress is smaller than that of the FSI effect, and its extent of contribution is related to the relative span length. In addition, it was concluded that the simulation considering bidirectional FSI (BFSI) can reflect the vibration characteristics of wind turbine blades more accurately.