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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

A Multidisciplinary Approach for the Comprehensive Assessment of Integrated Rotorcraft–Powerplant Systems at Mission Level

[+] Author and Article Information
Ioannis Goulos

Centre for Propulsion,
School of Engineering,
Cranfield University,
Bedfordshire MK430AL, UK
e-mail: i.goulos@cranfield.ac.uk

Fakhre Ali

Centre for Propulsion,
School of Engineering,
Cranfield University,
Bedfordshire MK430AL, UK
e-mail: f.ali@cranfield.ac.uk

Konstantinos Tzanidakis

Centre for Propulsion,
School of Engineering,
Cranfield University,
Bedfordshire MK430AL, UK
e-mail: k.tzanidakis@cranfield.ac.uk

Vassilios Pachidis

Centre for Propulsion,
School of Engineering,
Cranfield University,
Bedfordshire MK430AL, UK
e-mail: v.pachidis@cranfield.ac.uk

Roberto d'Ippolito

NOESIS Solutions,
Gaston Geenslaan, 11 B4,
Leuven 3001, Belgium
e-mail: roberto.dippolito@noesissolutions.com

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 4, 2014; final manuscript received July 10, 2014; published online August 26, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(1), 012603 (Aug 26, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1327; doi: 10.1115/1.4028181 History: Received July 04, 2014; Revised July 10, 2014

This paper presents an integrated methodology for the comprehensive assessment of combined rotorcraft–powerplant systems at mission level. Analytical evaluation of existing and conceptual designs is carried out in terms of operational performance and environmental impact. The proposed approach comprises a wide-range of individual modeling theories applicable to rotorcraft flight dynamics and gas turbine engine performance. A novel, physics-based, stirred reactor model is employed for the rapid estimation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. The individual mathematical models are implemented within an elaborate numerical procedure, solving for total mission fuel consumption and associated pollutant emissions. The combined approach is applied to the comprehensive analysis of a reference twin-engine light (TEL) aircraft modeled after the Eurocopter Bo 105 helicopter, operating on representative mission scenarios. Extensive comparisons with flight test data are carried out and presented in terms of main rotor trim control angles and power requirements, along with general flight performance charts including payload-range diagrams. Predictions of total mission fuel consumption and NOx emissions are compared with estimated values provided by the Swiss Federal Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA). Good agreement is exhibited between predictions made with the physics-based stirred reactor model and experimentally measured values of NOx emission indices. The obtained results suggest that the production rates of NOx pollutant emissions are predominantly influenced by the behavior of total air inlet pressure upstream of the combustion chamber, which is affected by the employed operational procedures and the time-dependent all-up mass (AUM) of the aircraft. It is demonstrated that accurate estimation of on-board fuel supplies ahead of flight is key to improving fuel economy as well as reducing environmental impact. The proposed methodology essentially constitutes an enabling technology for the comprehensive assessment of existing and conceptual rotorcraft–powerplant systems, in terms of operational performance and environmental impact.

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References

Goulos, I., Mohseni, M., Pachidis, V., d'Ippolito, R., and Stevens, J., 2010, “Simulation Framework Development for Helicopter Mission Analysis,” ASME Turbo Expo 2010, Glasgow, UK, June 14–18, Vol. 3, pp. 843–852, ASME Paper No. GT2010-23389. [CrossRef]
d'Ippolito, R., Stevens, J., Pachidis, V., Berta, A., Goulos, I., and Rizzi, C., 2010, “A Multidisciplinary Simulation Framework for Optimization of Rotorcraft Operations and Environmental Impact,” 2nd International Conference on Engineering Optimization (EngOpt 2010), Lisbon, Portugal, September 6–9.
Goulos, I., Pachidis, V., D'Ippolito, R., Stevens, J., and Smith, C., 2012, “An Integrated Approach for the Multidisciplinary Design of Optimum Rotorcraft Operations,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134(9), p. 091701. [CrossRef]
Goulos, I., Giannakakis, P., Pachidis, V., and Pilidis, P., 2013, “Mission Performance Simulation of Integrated Helicopter-Engine Systems Using an Aeroelastic Rotor Model,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(9), p. 091201. [CrossRef]
Goulos, I., Hempert, F., Sethi, V., Pachidis, V., d'Ippolito, R., and d'Auria, M., 2013, “Rotorcraft Engine Cycle Optimization at Mission Level,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(9), p. 091202. [CrossRef]
Goulos, I., 2012, “Simulation Framework Development for the Multidisciplinary Optimization of Rotorcraft,” Ph.D. thesis, School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, UK.
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Goulos, I., Pachidis, V., and Pilidis, P., 2014, “Flexible Rotor Blade Dynamics for Helicopter Aeromechanics Including Comparisons With Experimental Data,” Aeronaut. J., 118(1210) (in press).
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Illustration of the numerical formulation employed in HECTOR for the simulation of complete rotorcraft operations [4]

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Fig. 2

Geometric model of the annular combustion chamber of the reference Rolls-Royce Allison 250-C20B engine

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Fig. 3

Combustor zones, fuel/air fractions, and reactor models assumed for the modeling of gaseous emissions

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Fig. 4

Flame front equilibrium temperature and NOx emission index as functions of equivalence ratio for the reference Rolls-Royce 250-C20B combustor model

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Fig. 5

NOx emission index prediction for the reference Rolls-Royce Allison 250-C20B engine—comparison against closed form approximations and experimental measurements derived by FOCA [7], including representative lower and upper bounds

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Fig. 6

Trim performance predictions for the Bo 105 rotorcraft—comparison with flight test data from Ref. [25]: (a) rotor power required, (b) collective pitch angle θ0, (c) longitudinal cyclic pitch angle θ1s, and (d) lateral cyclic pitch angle θ1c

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Fig. 7

Engine performance parameters during trimmed flight for the reference Bo 105 rotorcraft: (a) engine fuel flow Wf and shaft power Pengine, (b) SFC and TET, (c) NOx production rate and engine shaft power Pengine, and (d) engine fuel flow Wf and NOx production rate

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Fig. 8

Reference Bo 105 rotorcraft performance estimation: specific air range at MTOW—cruise at 200 m altitude

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Fig. 9

Reference Bo 105 rotorcraft performance estimation: payload-range diagram

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Fig. 10

Reference PATM: (a) geographical definition and (b) time-variations of deployed operational airspeed and AGL altitude

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Fig. 11

Reference LEM: (a) geographical definition and (b) time-variations of deployed operational airspeed and AGL altitude

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Fig. 12

Engine performance parameters for the PATM: (a) shaft power Pengine—fuel flow Wf and (b) shaft power Pengine—NOx production rate

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Fig. 13

Engine performance parameters for the PATM: (a) shaft power Pengine—CO2 production rate and (b) TET—SFC

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Fig. 14

Engine performance parameters for the LEM: (a) shaft power Pengine—fuel flow Wf and (b) shaft power Pengine—NOx production rate

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Fig. 15

Engine performance parameters for the LEM: (a) shaft power Pengine—CO2 production rate and (b) TET—SFC

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Fig. 16

Engine performance parameters during climbing flight for the PATM: (a) shaft power Pengine—fuel flow Wf, (b) fuel flow Wf—CO2 production rate, and (c) OPR—TET

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Fig. 17

Engine performance parameters during climbing flight for the PATM (climb rate = 5 m/s): (a) combustor inlet pressure P3—NOx production rate and (b) combustor inlet temperature T3—NOx production rate

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