0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Ignition Probability in a Stratified Turbulent Flow With a Sunken Fire Igniter

[+] Author and Article Information
Brandon Sforzo

Ben T. Zinn Combustion Laboratory,
Guggenheim School of Aerospace Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150,
e-mail: brandon.sforzo@gatech.edu

Jaecheol Kim, Jeff Jagoda, Jerry Seitzman

Ben T. Zinn Combustion Laboratory,
Guggenheim School of Aerospace Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332-0150

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 8, 2014; final manuscript received July 13, 2014; published online August 26, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(1), 011502 (Aug 26, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1331; doi: 10.1115/1.4028208 History: Received July 08, 2014; Revised July 13, 2014

The evolution of a spark kernel ejected by a sunken fire igniter into a turbulent, fuel–air stratified crossflow was studied both experimentally and using a model in a configuration that is similar to the conditions found in turbine engine combustors. This study allows for variations in the transit time of the kernel across a uniform nonflammable region, before entering a second stream containing a flammable fuel–air mixture. High speed schlieren and emission imaging systems are used to visualize the evolution of the kernel and determine the probability of ignition based on measurements over many spark events. Experiments are performed for a range of mean velocities, transit times, inlet (preheat) temperatures, flammable zone equivalence ratios, and nonflammable zone equivalence ratios. In addition to the typical dependence of ignition on the equivalence ratio of the flammable mixture, the results indicate the strong influence of the kernel transit time and the inlet flow temperature on the probability of ignition. The entrainment between the kernel and the surrounding flow appears to be primarily controlled by the kernel ejection-induced flowfield. Reduced-order modeling suggests that the lowering of the kernel temperature associated with entrainment of the nonflammable mixture significantly reduces the ignition probability, and leads to the conclusion that the presence of fuel close to the igniter is necessary to ensure reliable ignition under adverse conditions.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Turns, S. R., 2000, An Introduction to Combustion: Concepts and Applications (Series in Mechanical Engineering), WCB/McGraw-Hill, New York.
Glassman, I., 2008, Combustion, 4th ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Lefebvre, A., 1999, Gas Turbine Combustion (Combustion: An International Series), Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL.
Dooley, K. A., 1996, “Continuous Plasma Ignition System,” U.S. Patent No. 5,587,630.
Topham, D., Smy, P., and Clements, R., 1975, “An Investigation of a Coaxial Spark Igniter With Emphasis on Its Practical Use,” Combust. Flame, 25, pp. 187–195. [CrossRef]
Armstrong, J. C., and Wilsted, H. D., 1952, “Investigation of Several Techniques for Improving Altitude-Starting Limits of Turbojet Engines,” National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Washington, DC, Technical Report No. NACA RM E52103.
Lewis, B., and Von Elbe, G., 1987, Combustion, Flames, and Explosions of Gases, Academic, Orlando, FL.
Weinberg, F. J., Hom, K., Oppenheim, A. K., and Teichman, K., 1978, “Ignition by Plasma Jet,” Nature, 272(5651), pp. 341–343. [CrossRef]
Bane, S., Shepherd, J., Kwon, E., and Day, A., 2011, “Statistical Analysis of Electrostatic Spark Ignition of Lean H2/O2/Ar Mixtures,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 36(3), pp. 2344–2350. [CrossRef]
Ballal, D. R., and Lefebvre, A. H., 1975, “The Influence of Spark Discharge Characteristics on Minimum Ignition Energy in Flowing Gases,” Combust. Flame, 24, pp. 99–108. [CrossRef]
Rao, K., and Lefebvre, A., 1976, “Minimum Ignition Energies in Flowing Kerosine-Air Mixtures,” Combust. Flame, 27, pp. 1–20. [CrossRef]
Swett, C. C., 1957, “Spark Ignition of Flowing Gases Using Long-Duration Discharges,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 6(1), pp. 523–532. [CrossRef]
Birch, A. D., Brown, D. R., and Dodson, M. G., 1981, “Ignition Probabilities in Turbulent Mixing Flows,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 18(1), pp. 1775–1780. [CrossRef]
Mastorakos, E., 2009, “Ignition of Turbulent Non-Premixed Flames,” Progress Energy Combust. Sci., 35(1), pp. 57–97. [CrossRef]
Sepulveda, D., and Striebel, E. E., 1983, “Starting Means for a Gas Turbine Engine,” U.S. No. Patent 4,417,439.
Ahmed, S. F., and Mastorakos, E., 2006, “Spark Ignition of Lifted Turbulent Jet Flames,” Combust. Flame, 146(1–2), pp. 215–231. [CrossRef]
Srinivasan, S., Pasumarti, R., and Menon, S., 2012, “Large-Eddy Simulation of Pulsed High-Speed Subsonic Jets in a Turbulent Crossflow,” J. Turbul., 13(1), pp. 1–21. [CrossRef]
Eroglu, A., and Breidenthal, R. E., 2001, “Structure, Penetration, and Mixing of Pulsed Jets in Crossflow,” AIAA J., 39(3), pp. 417–423. [CrossRef]
Kim, J., Sforzo, B., Seitzman, J., and Jagoda, J., 2012, “High Energy Spark Discharges for Ignition,” AIAA Paper No. 2012-4172. [CrossRef]
Hall, J. M., and Petersen, E. L., 2006, “An Optimized Kinetics Model for OH Chemiluminescence at High Temperatures and Atmospheric Pressures,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 38(12), pp. 714–724. [CrossRef]
Higgins, B., McQuay, M., Lacas, F., Rolon, J., Darabiha, N., and Candel, S., 2001, “Systematic Measurements of OH Chemiluminescence for Fuel-Lean, High-Pressure, Premixed, Laminar Flames,” Fuel, 80(1), pp. 67–74. [CrossRef]
Goodwin, D., 2009, “Cantera: An Object-Oriented Software Toolkit for Chemical Kinetics, Thermodynamics, and Transport Processes,” Caltech, Pasadena, CA.
Schulz, J., Gottiparthi, K., and Menon, S., 2012, “Ionization in Gaseous Detonation Waves,” Shock Waves, 22(6), pp. 579–590. [CrossRef]
Bose, D., and Candler, G. V., 1996, “Thermal Rate Constants of the N2 + O → NO + N Reaction Using Ab Initio 3A″ and 3A′ Potential Energy Surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys., 104(8), pp. 2825–2833. [CrossRef]
Park, C., Howe, J., Jaffe, R., and Candler, G., 1994, “Review of Chemical-Kinetic Problems of Future NASA Missions,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 8(3), pp. 385–392. [CrossRef]
Teulet, P., Sarrette, J. P., and Gomes, A. M., 1999, “Calculation of Electron Impact Inelastic Cross Sections and Rate Coefficients for Diatomic Molecules. Application to Air Molecules,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 62(5), pp. 549–569. [CrossRef]
McBride, B. J., Zehe, M. J., and Gordon, S., 2002, NASA Glenn Coefficients for Calculating Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Species, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, Cleveland, OH.
Combusion Research Group, 2014, “The San Diego Mechanism: Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms for Combustion Applications,” Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Combustion Research), University of California at San Diego, CA, http://web.eng.ucsd.edu/mae/groups/combustion/mechanism.html
Chakravarti, I. M., 1956, “Fractional Replication in Asymmetrical Factorial Designs and Partially Balanced Arrays,” Sankhyā: Indian J. Stat., 17(2), pp. 143–164.
Spadaccini, L., and Colket, III, M., 1994, “Ignition Delay Characteristics of Methane Fuels,” Progress Energy Combust., 20(5), pp. 431–460. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Annular combustor with (30) igniter mounted through the (26) outer casing and (14) outer liner [15]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Superposition of approximately ten kernel trajectories from a high-speed movie in a 25 m/s crossflow. The igniter is located at (0,0) and flow is left to right. Color bar indicates the number of times a kernel edge is observed at a given location.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic of the stratified flow facility

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic of data acquisition system layout (HSC: high speed camera)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Two-stage reactor model for ignition kernel evolution including mass entrainment through nonflammable and flammable mixture zones

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Time progression of a kernel ejected from igniter. Schlieren visualization depicts kernel reaching splitter boundary (overlaid white line) at 60 μs ± 10 μs.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Example long-exposure emission image showing developing flame kernel, edges highlighted; failed ignition attempts show no emission (flow is from right to left)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Parameters sorted by t-ratio representing their influence in the model. The vertical lines depict the 0.05 significance level (α).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Ignition probabilities at several splitter plate heights for varying equivalence ratios and 300 K inflow temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Probability of ignition at increased inlet temperatures, taken at two splitter plate heights

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Temperature history for cases from Table 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Selected species (CH4 and OH) time history for cases from Table 3

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In