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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Hydrogen Enriched Combustion Testing of Siemens Industrial SGT-400 at Atmospheric Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Kam-Kei Lam

Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery, Ltd.,
Waterside South,
Lincoln LN5 7FD, UK
e-mail: kam-kei.lam@siemens.com

Philipp Geipel

Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB,
Finspong SE-61283, Sweden
e-mail: philipp.geipel@siemens.com

Jenny Larfeldt

Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB,
Finspong SE-61283, Sweden
e-mail: Jenny.larfeldt@siemens.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 9, 2014; final manuscript received July 16, 2014; published online September 4, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(2), 021502 (Sep 04, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1337; doi: 10.1115/1.4028209 History: Received July 09, 2014; Revised July 16, 2014

In order to further extend the turbine fuel flex capability, a test under atmospheric conditions of a full-scale SGT-400 burner was performed to study the combustion behavior when operating on hydrogen enriched natural gas (NG). A high speed camera was installed in the rig to investigate the flame dynamics on different operation conditions. NOx emissions were measured for all presented conditions. The combustion system was instrumented with thermocouples on all the key locations to allow flame position monitoring and to avoid flame attachment on the hardware. Further measurements included static pressure probes to monitor combustor pressure drop. The test was conducted in a systematic matrix format to include the most important combustion parameters in order to identify their individual effects on the combustion behaviors. The quantity of hydrogen in natural gas, fuel split, air preheat temperature, air reference velocity and flame temperature were the combustion related variables studied in the presented test campaign. The volumetric hydrogen quantity could be increased to 30% maintaining stable operation for all measured conditions. Higher hydrogen contents up to 80 vol. % were reached without flash back tendency. A glowing spark igniter prevented testing at even higher hydrogen contents. Hydrogen enriched gas showed higher NOx emissions and improved blowout limit. Hydrogen blending in the fuel also reduced the combustor pressure drop, lowered the prechamber temperature and raised the pilot tip temperature.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

SIEMENS DLE combustion system

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Fig. 2

SGT-400 CFD combustion simulation

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Fig. 3

SIEMENS ACR combustion rig in Finspong, Sweden

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Fig. 4

Typical premixed flame of the SIEMENS DLE combustion system in ACR test

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Fig. 5

Combustion parameters of methane and hydrogen mixtures (normalized to pure methane)

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Fig. 6

Natural gas combustion high speed camera images

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Fig. 7

50% hydrogen content combustion high speed camera images

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Fig. 8

NOx emission normalized to the reference condition. (a) Air preheat 420 °C and reference velocity 43 m/s, (b) air preheat 420 °C and flame temperature 1740 K, and (c) reference velocity 43 m/s and flame temperature 1880 K.

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Fig. 9

Pilot tip thermocouple

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Fig. 10

Prechamber thermocouple

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Fig. 11

Pilot tip temperature normalized to the reference condition. (a) Air preheat 420 °C and reference velocity 43 m/s, (b) air preheat 420 °C and flame temperature 1740 K, and (c) reference velocity 43 m/s and flame temperature 1880 K.

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Fig. 12

Prechamber temperature normalized to the reference condition. (a) Air preheat 420 C and reference velocity 43 m/s, (b) air preheat 420 °C and flame temperature 1740 K, and (c) reference velocity 43 m/s and flame temperature 1880 K.

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Fig. 13

Burner pressure drop normalized to the reference condition. (a) Air preheat 420 °C and reference velocity 43 m/s, (b) air preheat 420 °C and flame temperature 1740 K, and (c) reference velocity 43 m/s and flame temperature 1880 K.

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Fig. 14

Flame temperatures to NG blowout in the combustion blowout tests

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