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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Heat Transfer

Analysis and Methodology to Characterize Heat Transfer Phenomena in Automotive Turbochargers

[+] Author and Article Information
J. R. Serrano

CMT Motores Térmicos,
Universitat Politècnica de València,
Camino de Vera s/n,
Valencia 46022, Spain
e-mail: jrserran@mot.upv.es

P. Olmeda, F. J. Arnau, A. Dombrovsky

CMT Motores Térmicos,
Universitat Politècnica de València,
Camino de Vera s/n,
Valencia 46022, Spain

L. Smith

Jaguar Land Rover Ltd.,
Abbey Road, Whitley,
Coventry CV3 4LF, UK

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 9, 2014; final manuscript received July 14, 2014; published online September 16, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(2), 021901 (Sep 16, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1352; doi: 10.1115/1.4028261 History: Received July 09, 2014; Revised July 14, 2014

In the present work a comprehensive study of turbocharger heat transfer phenomena is discussed, showing their relevance compared to gas enthalpy variations through the turbomachinery. The study provides an experimental methodology to consider the different heat fluxes in the turbocharger and modeling them by means of a lumped capacitance heat transfer model (HTM). The input data required for the model are obtained experimentally by a proper combination of both steady and transient tests. These tests are performed in different test benches, in which incompressible fluids (oil) and compressible fluids (gas) are used in a given sequence. The experimental data allows developing heat transfer correlations for the different turbocharger elements. These correlations take into account all the possible heat fluxes, discriminating between internal and external heat transfer. In order to analyze the relative importance of heat transfer phenomena in the predictability of the turbocharger performance and the different related variables; model results, in hot and cold conditions, have been compared with those provided by the standard technique, consisting on using look up maps (LUM) of the turbocharger. The analysis of these results evidences the highly diabatic operative areas of the turbocharger and it provides clearly ground rules for using hot or cold turbocharger maps. In addition, paper discussion advises about using or not aHTM, depending on the turbocharger variables and the operative conditions that one desires to predict. Paper concludes that an accurate prediction of gas temperatures at turbine and compressor outlet and of fluid temperatures at water and oil ports outlet is not always possible without considering heat transfer phenomena in the turbocharger.

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References

Baines, N., Wygant, K., and Dris, A., 2009, “The Analysis of Heat Transfer in Automotive Turbochargers,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59618. [CrossRef]
Serrano, J., Olmeda, P., Arnau, F., and Reyes-Belmonte, M., 2013, “Importance of Heat Transfer Phenomena in Small Turbochargers for Passenger Car Applications,” SAE Int. J. Eng.,6(2), pp. 716–728. [CrossRef]
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Serrano, J. R., Olmeda, P., Tiseira, A., García-Cuevas, L. M., and Lefebvre, A., 2013, “Theoretical and Experimental Study of Mechanical Losses in Automotive Turbochargers,” Energy, 55, pp. 888–898. [CrossRef]
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Serrano, J. R., Arnau, F. J., Fajardo, P., Reyes-Belmonte, M., and Vidal, F., 2012, “Contribution to the Modeling and Understanding of Cold Pulsating Flow Influence in the Efficiency of Small Radial Turbines for Turbochargers,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134(10), p. 102701. [CrossRef]
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Serrano, J. R., Olmeda, P., Arnau, F. J., Reyes-Belmonte, M. A., Lefebvre, A., and Tartoussi, H., “A Study on the Internal Convection on Small Turbochargers,” Energy (submitted).
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Figures

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Fig. 1

h-s diagram illustrating heat transfer power in compressor (Q·c on the left chart) and turbine (Q·t on the right chart)

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Fig. 6

Comparison of hot insulated measured TDE with TDE from Adiab. (T#2)

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Fig. 5

Comparison of H.Ins. of turbine mass flow with Adiab. (T#2)

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Fig. 4

Comparison of compressor efficiency measured at hot insulated conditions versus efficiency measured at adiabatic conditions. Nonwater-cooled turbocharger (T#2).

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Fig. 3

Comparison of compressor efficiency measured at hot insulated conditions versus efficiency measured at adiabatic conditions. Water-cooled turbocharger (T#1).

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Fig. 7

Comparison of hot insulated measured ETE with ETE from Adiab. (T#2)

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Fig. 11

GT-power model of turbocharger test bench

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Fig. 12

Error in relevant turbocharger variables calculated with respect to hot exposes tests (T#2)

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Fig. 8

(a) Relative importance of turbine heat flux (Q·Gas/T) compared to drop of turbine enthalpy flow. (b) Modeled versus measured turbine heat flow.

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Fig. 9

(a) Relative importance of compressor heat flux (Q·C/A) compared to turbine enthalpy drop. (b) Modeled versus measured compressor heat flow.

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Fig. 13

Differences on the prediction of compressor (a) and turbine (b) gas outlet temperature with respect to hot exposed tests (T#2)

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Fig. 10

(a) Water heat flow against turbine heat flow for T#1. (b) Oil heat flow against turbine heat flow for T#2.

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Fig. 14

Differences on the prediction of compressor and turbine gas outlet temperature with respect to hot insulated tests (T#2). (a) and (b) LUM based on maps measured at hot insulated conditions. (c) and (d) LUM based on maps measured at adiabatic conditions.

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