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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Electric Power

Increasing On-Shore Wind Generated Electricity in Germany's Transmission Grid

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Singh

Laboratory for Energy Conversion,
Department of Mechanical
and Process Engineering,
ETH Zürich,
Zürich CH 8092, Switzerland
e-mail: singh@lec.mavt.ethz.ch

D. Willi, N. Chokani, R. S. Abhari

Laboratory for Energy Conversion,
Department of Mechanical
and Process Engineering,
ETH Zürich,
Zürich CH 8092, Switzerland

Contributed by the Wind Energy Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 9, 2014; final manuscript received July 23, 2014; published online September 16, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(2), 021801 (Sep 16, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1341; doi: 10.1115/1.4028380 History: Received July 09, 2014; Revised July 23, 2014

An increase in the penetration of renewables generated electricity has technical and economic impacts on power transmission systems because of the renewables' variable characteristics. However, due to concerns of energy security, operational information of power infrastructure is scarce, making it challenging for policy-makers and independent power producers to assess these systems for the development of new energy projects. This paper presents an analysis of Germany's power generation and transmission infrastructure using integrated, geographically indexed production, demand. and grid models. The paper assesses the impact of growth of renewables on Germany's grid in a scenario of slow growth of grid infrastructure to show that the length of transmission lines needing reinforcement increases from 650 km in 2011 to 1090 km in 2020, if Germany's transmission grid is to keep pace with the increased penetration of renewable energy. Mesoscale model simulations of the weather are used in the year 2020 scenario to assess the economic development of the competing renewables—wind and solar—in relation to the available grid capacity. It is shown that if the grid development lags the development of then targeted 35% renewables portfolio, then 6.5% of generated power by wind and solar energy will face risk of curtailment.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Comparison of Germany's 2020 wind target to 2011 installed capacity and energy production [1]

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Fig. 2

Map showing Germany's power infrastructure, network topology, and spatial distribution of power demand

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Fig. 7

Mean loading of Germany's transmission network for the year 2011

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Fig. 8

Standard deviation in line loading of Germany's transmission network for the year 2011

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Fig. 6

Simulated power production mix for third Wednesday in months of the year 2011

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Fig. 5

Hourly capacity factors for solar in Germany, assumed for the third Wednesday of every month

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Fig. 4

Marginal costs for each category of generation used for simulating power market auctions simulations of Germany (data from Ref. [19])

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Fig. 9

Map of line criticality factor for Germany's transmission network for the year 2011

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Fig. 10

Annual power demand in Germany between 2002 and 2011 and extrapolated demand for the year 2020 (data from Ref. [12])

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Fig. 11

Mean loading of Germany's transmission network for the year 2020

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Fig. 12

Standard deviation in line loading of Germany's transmission network for the year 2020

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Fig. 13

Map of line criticality factor for Germany's transmission network for the year 2020

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Fig. 16

Grid map of Germany indicating the predictions of network development and reinforcement by DENA, compared to critical lines identified in the present work

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Fig. 14

German electricity production mix for different wind/solar capacities

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Fig. 15

Percentage of production curtailment risk with growth of renewables and limited grid development

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