0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Fluid Properties at Gas Turbine Inlet Due to Fogging Considering Evaporation and Condensation Phenomena as Well as Icing Risk

[+] Author and Article Information
Christoph Günther

Helmut-Schmidt-University/University
of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg,
Holstenhofweg 85,
Hamburg 22043, Germany
e-mail: guenther@hsu-hh.de

Franz Joos

Helmut-Schmidt-University/University
of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg,
Holstenhofweg 85,
Hamburg 22043, Germany
e-mail: joos@hsu-hh.de

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 10, 2014; final manuscript received July 29, 2014; published online October 14, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(3), 032605 (Oct 14, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1359; doi: 10.1115/1.4028434 History: Received July 10, 2014; Revised July 29, 2014

This study reports on numerically calculated thermophysical properties of air entering a gas turbine compressor after passing through an intake duct affected by different cooling techniques. Case of reference is unaffected ambient air (referenced to as unaffected) passing the intake duct. Furthermore, ambient air cooled down to wet bulb temperature by (overspray) fogging (referenced to as wet) was considered. The third case shows air cooled down to the same temperature as it was reached in the wet case but by using chillers (referenced to as chilled). Equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties according to the occurring evaporation and condensation phenomena were compared. Equilibrium conditions seem to have a reduced inlet icing risk for the wet case compared to the chilled case. However, comparing the wet case to the unaffected case showed a higher icing risk for the wet case at low ambient relative humidity. In contrast to equilibrium conditions, a consideration of nonequilibrium conditions resulted in an increased icing risk due to almost negligible condensation rates.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Bhargava, R. K., Meher-Homji, C. B., Chaker, M. A., Bianchi, M., Melino, F., Peretto, A., and Ingistov, S., 2007, “Gas Turbine Fogging Technology: A State-of-the-Art Review—Part I: Analytical and Experimental Aspects,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 129(2), pp. 443–453. [CrossRef]
Hill, P. G., 1963, “Aerodynamic and Thermodynamic Effects of Coolant Injection on Axial Compressors,” Aeronaut. Q., Nov., pp. 331–348.
Zheng, Q., Sun, Y., Li, S., and Wang, Y., 2003, “Thermodynamic Analyses of Wet Compression Process in the Compressor of Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Turbomach., 125(3), pp. 489–496. [CrossRef]
Günther, C., 2010, Thermodynamische Modellierung der Nasskompression in Gasturbinenverdichtern , University of Applied Sciences Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
Eisfeld, T., and Joos, F., 2012, “On Thermodynamic Modelling of Two-Phase Flow Compression With Dispersed Water Droplets in Air,” 14th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-14), Honolulu, HI, Feb. 27–Mar. 2.
Myoren, C., Takahashi, Y., Yagi, M., Shibata, T., and Kishibe, T., 2013, “Evaluation of Axial Compressor Characteristics Under Overspray Condition,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95402. [CrossRef]
Liu, L., Zhang, H., Li, J., Yu, C., Lin, F., and Nie, C., 2013, “Measurements and Visualization of Process From Steady State to Stall in an Axial Compressor With Water Ingestion,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95352. [CrossRef]
Cataldi, G., Güntner, H., Matz, C., McKay, T., Hoffmann, J., Nemet, A., Lecheler, S., and Braun, J., 2006, “Influence of High Fogging Systems on Gas Turbine Engine Operation and Performance,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 128(1), pp. 135–143. [CrossRef]
Ober, B., and Joos, F., 2013, “Experimental Investigation on Aerodynamic Behavior of a Compressor Cascade in Droplet Laden Flow,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-94731. [CrossRef]
Eisfeld, T., 2011, “Experimentelle Untersuchung der Aerodynamik einer mit Wassertropfen beladenen Luftströmung in einem ebenen Verdichtergitter,” Helmut Schmidt University/University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
Luo, M., Zheng, Q., Sun, L., Deng, Q., and Yang, J., 2013, “Numerical Simulation of an Eight-Stage Axial Subsonic Compressor With Wet Compression,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-94486. [CrossRef]
Storm, C., and Joos, F., 2011, “Euler Lagrange Method in Numerical Simulation of Water Droplet—Laden Compressor Flows,” 20th International Symposium of Air Breathing Engines (ISABE 2011), Gothenburg, Sweden, Sept. 12–16.
Payne, R. C., and White, A. J., 2007, “Three-Dimensional Calculations of Evaporative Flow in Compressor Blade Rows,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27331. [CrossRef]
Meacock, A. J., 2005, “Analysis of Water Injected Compressors,” Ph.D. thesis, Gonville and Caius College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
White, A. J., and Meacock, A. J., 2011,”Wet Compression Analysis Including Velocity Slip Effects,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 133(8), p. 081701. [CrossRef]
Miller, R. S., Harstad, K., and Bellan, J., 1998, “Evaluation of Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Evaporation Models for Many-Droplet Gas-Liquid Flow Simulations,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 24(6), pp. 1025–1055. [CrossRef]
Russo, E., Kuerten, J. G. M., van der Geld, C. W. M., and Geurts, B. J., 2011, “Modeling Water Droplet Condensation and Evaporation in DNS of Turbulent Channel Flow,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 318(5), p. 052019. [CrossRef]
Chaker, M., Meher-Homji, C. B., and Mee, T., III, 2002, “Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines—Part C: Fog Behavior in Inlet Ducts, CFD-Analysis and Wind Tunnel Experiments,” ASME Paper No. GT2002-30564. [CrossRef]
Schürmann, P., Forsyth, J., Padrutt, R., and Heiniger, K. C., 2003, “Spray Characterisation Downstream of the Swirl Pressure Nozzles in Gas Turbine Fogging and High Fogging Applications,” Power-Gen International Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, NV, Dec. 9–11.
Zierer, T., and Matyschok, B., 1997, “Design, Development and Verification of Gas Turbine GT24 Air Intake,” ASME ASIA '97 Congress & Exhibition, Singapore, Sept. 30–Oct. 2.
Ciepluch, C. C., 1948, “Effect of Inlet Air Distortion on the Steady-State and Surge Characteristics of an Axial-Flow Turbojet Compressor,” last accessed Aug. 28, 2013, available at http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc64864/
Ng, E. Y.-K., Liu, N., Lim, H. N., and Tan, T. L., 2002, “Study on the Propagation of Inlet Flow Distortion in Axial Compressor Using Integral Method,” Computational Mechanics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Chap. 1.
Nie, C., Zhang, J., Tong, Z., and Zhang, H., 2006, “The Response of a Low Speed Compressor on Rotation Inlet Distortion,” J. Therm. Sci., 15(4), pp. 314–318. [CrossRef]
Traupel, W., 2001, Thermische Turbomaschinen 1, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Gnielinski, V., Kabelac, S., Kind, M., Martin, H., Mewes, D., Schaber, K., and Stephan, P., 2006, VDI Wärmeatlas, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Haywood, R. W., 1980, Equilibrium Thermodynamics for Engineers and Scientists, Wiley, New York.
Sonntag, R. E., and van Wylen, G., 1982, Introduction to Thermodynamics Classical & Statitical, Wiley, New York.
Yuen, M. C., and Chen, L. W., 1978, “Heat-Transfer Measurements of Evaporating Liquid Droplets,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 21(5), pp. 537–542. [CrossRef]
Ranz, W. E., and Marshall, J. W. R., 1952, “Evaporation From Drops,” Chem. Eng. Prog., 48(3), pp. 141–146., available at: http://dns2.asia.edu.tw/~ysho/YSHO-English/1000%20CE/PDF/Che%20Eng%20Pro48,%20141.pdf
Crowe, C., Sommerfeld, M., and Tsuji, Y., 1998, Multiphase Flows With Droplets and Particles, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Diameter of injected droplets versus number of droplets per class and versus the mass per droplet class

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic depiction of an intake duct used for a GT24/26 gas turbine showing ambient conditions and planes 1 and 2 [20]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Normalized area of intake duct and normalized flow velocity versus normalized position in the intake duct according to the unaffected case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic model of an evaporating or condensating droplet

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Partial and saturation pressure of the vapor versus normalized axial intake duct position for equilibrium consideration at an ambient temperature of 290 K and a relative humidity of 60%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Temperature development versus normalized intake duct position with equilibrium temperatures at the end of the intake duct for an ambient temperature of 290 K (lines without evaporation or condensation and marks consider condensation)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Wetbulb temperature versus ambient relative humidity for an ambient temperature of 290 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Sensitivity analysis of compressor inlet temperature versus ambient relative humidity for the unaffected and the chilled case at an ambient temperature of 290 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Sensitivity analysis of gas turbine inlet temperature versus ambient relative humidity for the wet case and considered equilibrium with an ambient temperature of 290 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Development of relative humidity versus normalized axial intake duct position considering droplet evaporation and condensation (ambient 290 K and 60% of relative humidity)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Development of static temperature versus normalized axial intake duct position considering droplet evaporation and condensation

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In