Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Laminar Burning Velocities and Emissions of Hydrogen–Methane–Air–Steam Mixtures

[+] Author and Article Information
Katharina Göckeler

Chair of Fluid Dynamics
Technische Universität Berlin,
Müller-Breslau-Str. 8,
Berlin 10623, Germany
e-mail: katharina.goeckeler@tu-berlin.de

Oliver Krüger, Christian Oliver Paschereit

Chair of Fluid Dynamics
Technische Universität Berlin,
Müller-Breslau-Str. 8,
Berlin 10623, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 10, 2014; final manuscript received August 7, 2014; published online October 7, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(3), 031503 (Oct 07, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1366; doi: 10.1115/1.4028460 History: Received July 10, 2014; Revised August 07, 2014

Humidified gas turbines using steam generated from excess heat feature increased cycle efficiencies. Injecting the steam into the combustor reduces NOx emissions, flame temperatures, and burning velocities, promising a clean and stable combustion of highly reactive fuels such as hydrogen or hydrogen–methane blends. This study presents laminar burning velocities for methane and hydrogen-enriched methane (10 mol. % and 50 mol. %) at steam contents up to 30% of the air mass flow. Experiments were conducted on prismatic Bunsen flames stabilized on a slot-burner, employing OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (OH-PLIF) as an indicator for flame front areas. The experimental burning velocities agree well with results from one-dimensional simulations using the GRI 3.0 mechanism. Burning velocities reduce nonlinearly with ascending steam mole fractions and more rapid compared to simulations using “virtual H2O” stemming from a chemical influence on reactions. Hydrogen enrichment increases burning velocities, extending the flammability range toward leaner and more humid mixtures. Additionally, measured NOx and CO emissions reveal a strong reduction in NOx emissions for increasing steam dilution rates, whereas CO curves are shifted toward higher equivalence ratios.

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Fig. 1

Experimental setup: (a) schematic of slot burner including flow supplies and (b) photos of the flame from front-top view (left) and side view (right)

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Fig. 2

Different stages of data postprocessing: (a) first POD mode of OH-PLIF image series and (b) spatially filtered POD image with fitted spline at flame front

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Fig. 4

Laminar burning velocities for the tested H2–CH4–air–steam mixtures and comparison with 1D simulations using GRI 3.0 mechanism [23]. The preheat temperature was kept at 440 K.

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Fig. 3

Local turbulence intensity I* overlayed with streamlines of the time averaged flow (ξ = 10%, Ω = 0.1, and φ = 1.1)

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Fig. 6

Decrease in burning velocity of the stoichiometric mixtures with steam mole fraction, when scaled by the burning velocity of the dry mixture Sl,dry and the respective thermal diffusivity α. Virtual H2O acts as an inert diluent featuring the same fluid properties as steam.

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Fig. 7

Emissions over equivalence ratio for different fuels and steam contents

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Fig. 8

Emissions over adiabatic flame temperature for different fuels and steam contents. Only stoichiometric and lean mixtures (φ≤1) are shown here.

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Fig. 9

Mole fractions of NOx and CO along the 1D simulation domain (ξ = 0.5 and φ)

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Fig. 5

Normalized burning velocity over equivalence ratio for the dry mixtures, where Sl,max refers to the maximum burning velocity of each fuel and K to the scaling factor with respect to methane (K=Sl,max/Sl,max,CH4). The data in Hu et al. [15] were measured at 303 K.



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