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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Development and Experimental Investigation of a Tubular Combustor for Pyrolysis Oil Burning

[+] Author and Article Information
Martin Beran

OPRA Turbines,
Hengelo 7554 TS, The Netherlands
e-mail: M.Beran@opra.nl

Lars-Uno Axelsson

OPRA Turbines,
Hengelo 7554 TS, The Netherlands
e-mail: L.Axelsson@opra.nl

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 29, 2014; final manuscript received July 29, 2014; published online October 7, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(3), 031508 (Oct 07, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1446; doi: 10.1115/1.4028450 History: Received July 29, 2014; Revised July 29, 2014

The growing demand for more economical and environmentally friendly power generation forces the industry to search for fuels that can replace the conventional fossil fuels. This has led to significant developments in the production of alternative fuels during the last years, which have made them a reliable and relatively efficient source of energy. One example of these alternative fuels is the pyrolysis oil. However, higher viscosity, lower heat content, limited chemical stability, and its ability to create sediment make pyrolysis oil challenging for gas turbines. The OPRA OP16 gas turbine is an all radial single-shaft gas turbine rated at 1.9 MW. The all radial design, together with the lack of intricate cooling geometries in the hot section, makes this gas turbine suitable for operation on these fuels. This paper presents an experimental investigation of pyrolysis oil combustion in a tubular combustor developed, especially for low-calorific fuels. The experiments have been performed in an atmospheric combustion test rig, and the results have been compared to the results obtained from ethanol and diesel combustion. It was found that it was possible to burn pure pyrolysis oil in the load range between 70% and 100% with a combustion efficiency exceeding 99% and without creation of sediments on the combustor inner wall. It was found that the NOx emissions were similar for pyrolysis oil and diesel, whereas the CO emissions were twice as high for pyrolysis oil. A comparison between the air blast nozzle and the pressure nozzle was performed. The air blast nozzle was found to be more suitable due to its better performance over a wider operating range and that it is more resistant to erosion and abrasion. It was found that the maximum allowed droplet size of the pyrolysis oil spray should be about 50–70% of the droplet size for diesel fuel.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The OP16 gas turbine

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Fig. 2

OPRA’s atmospheric combustor test rig

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the measurement locations

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Fig. 4

Interior of three configurations of the down-scaled combustor after burning of pyrolysis oil

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Fig. 5

Air blast nozzle with prefilmer

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Fig. 6

Ratio between droplet life time and combustion gas residence time within the primary zone for all tested fuels and nozzles

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Fig. 7

Maximum allowed droplet diameter for diesel, ethanol, and pyrolysis oil based on diesel fuel at full load condition as a reference case for pressure nozzle type 25 GPH

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Fig. 8

Maximum allowed droplet diameter for diesel, ethanol, and pyrolysis oil based on diesel fuel at full load condition as a reference case for the air blast nozzle

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Fig. 9

NOx emissions for diesel and ethanol fuels and for pressure and air blast nozzle

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Fig. 10

CO emissions for diesel and ethanol fuels and for pressure and air blast nozzle

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Fig. 11

NOx emissions for diesel, ethanol, and pyrolysis oil referenced to standard combustor at diesel and full load condition

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Fig. 12

CO emissions for diesel, ethanol, and pyrolysis oil referenced to standard combustor at diesel and full load condition

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