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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Manufacturing, Materials, and Metallurgy

Erosion Testing of Thermal Barrier Coatings in a High Enthalpy Wind Tunnel

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Kirschner

Institute for Thermodynamics,
University of the Federal Armed Forces,
Werner Heisenberg Weg 39,
Neubiberg 85579, Germany
e-mail: Marco.Kirschner@unibw.de

T. Wobst

Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG,
Eschenweg 11,
Blankenfelde-Mahlow 15827, Germany
e-mail: Tanja.Wobst@Rolls-Royce.com

B. Rittmeister

GfE Fremat GmbH,
Lessingstraße 41,
Freiberg 09599, Germany
e-mail: ben.rittmeister@gfe.com

Ch. Mundt

Institute for Thermodynamics,
University of the Federal Armed Forces,
Werner Heisenberg Weg 39,
Neubiberg 85579, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Materials and Metallurgy Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 1, 2014; final manuscript received August 2, 2014; published online October 14, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(3), 032101 (Oct 14, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1456; doi: 10.1115/1.4028469 History: Received August 01, 2014; Revised August 02, 2014

One of the major problems facing the users of aircraft engines and stationary gas turbines in dusty and dirty environments is erosion, causing engine performance deterioration. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are often applied on metal engine components as combustor heat shields or tiles as well as turbine blades allowing enhanced operating temperatures and resulting in increased thermal efficiency of the turbine and also reduced fuel consumption and gaseous emission. Erosive attack by airborne dust or fly ash, coarse particles causes coating degradation resulting in lifting issues of engine components. In the present study, an erosion test facility was used to simulate the mechanisms of coating degradation expected in gas turbines in a more realistic way closer to real engine conditions. A loading situation combining thermal gradient cycling and erosive media was used. The experiments have been performed with an arc heated plasma wind tunnel (PWT total enthalpy up to 20 MJ/kg), which is available at the Institute for Thermodynamics at the University of the Federal Armed Forces in Munich, Germany. The experimental setup and the integration of the air jet erosion test rig into the existing PWT will be elucidated. Different plasma sprayed TBC materials, including the standard TBC material yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), were investigated regarding their erosion resistance. For validation and verification, samples of nickel-based Mar-M 247 and INCO 718 alloys have been used.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the high-temperature erosion test facility

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Fig. 2

Photograph of the particle injection, the particle probe, specimen, and the baffle plate from above

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Fig. 3

Scanning electron microscope image of Al2O3 particles used in the tests

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Fig. 4

Size distribution of the used Al2O3 particles [18]

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Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the thermal erosion cycling procedure for Mar-M 247

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Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of the thermal erosion cycling procedure for TBCs and INCO 718

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Fig. 7

Typical surface temperature during a thermal load cycle for TBCs

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Fig. 8

Images of the injection process and the trajectories of the particles with varying injection angles (from front to back α = 43 deg, 53 deg, and 63 deg)

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Fig. 9

Scanning electron micrograph of Al2O3 particles after exposed to the high enthalpy flow

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Fig. 10

Typical particle velocity distribution at the sample position

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Fig. 11

Erosion rate against time for two Mar-M 247 specimens at different feed rates

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Fig. 12

Photograph of 8 wt.% Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 TBC after 120 s testing using a feed rate of 2 g/min

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Fig. 13

Photograph of 8 wt.% Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 TBC after 900 s testing using a feed rate of 0.2 g/min

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Fig. 14

Erosion rates of all TBCs including Mar-M 247 and INCO 718

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Fig. 15

Measured erosion rate against microhardness HV0.5 (as sprayed), in comparison to the power law given in Ref. [9]

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Fig. 16

Microstructure of the cross section of a YSZ APS sample showing an edge zone of undamaged coating

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Fig. 17

Microstructure of the cross section in the middle of a YSZ APS sample showing preferential surface erosion, microcracks, and delamination

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Fig. 18

Microstructure of the cross section of an FYSZ APS sample showing an edge zone of a none-eroded surface, but delamination

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Fig. 19

Microstructure of the cross section of an FYSZ APS sample in the middle showing a strong eroded surface, small cracks sometimes observed beneath the densified layer

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