Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Manufacturing, Materials, and Metallurgy

Erosion Testing of Thermal Barrier Coatings in a High Enthalpy Wind Tunnel

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Kirschner

Institute for Thermodynamics,
University of the Federal Armed Forces,
Werner Heisenberg Weg 39,
Neubiberg 85579, Germany
e-mail: Marco.Kirschner@unibw.de

T. Wobst

Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG,
Eschenweg 11,
Blankenfelde-Mahlow 15827, Germany
e-mail: Tanja.Wobst@Rolls-Royce.com

B. Rittmeister

GfE Fremat GmbH,
Lessingstraße 41,
Freiberg 09599, Germany
e-mail: ben.rittmeister@gfe.com

Ch. Mundt

Institute for Thermodynamics,
University of the Federal Armed Forces,
Werner Heisenberg Weg 39,
Neubiberg 85579, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Materials and Metallurgy Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 1, 2014; final manuscript received August 2, 2014; published online October 14, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(3), 032101 (Oct 14, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1456; doi: 10.1115/1.4028469 History: Received August 01, 2014; Revised August 02, 2014

One of the major problems facing the users of aircraft engines and stationary gas turbines in dusty and dirty environments is erosion, causing engine performance deterioration. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are often applied on metal engine components as combustor heat shields or tiles as well as turbine blades allowing enhanced operating temperatures and resulting in increased thermal efficiency of the turbine and also reduced fuel consumption and gaseous emission. Erosive attack by airborne dust or fly ash, coarse particles causes coating degradation resulting in lifting issues of engine components. In the present study, an erosion test facility was used to simulate the mechanisms of coating degradation expected in gas turbines in a more realistic way closer to real engine conditions. A loading situation combining thermal gradient cycling and erosive media was used. The experiments have been performed with an arc heated plasma wind tunnel (PWT total enthalpy up to 20 MJ/kg), which is available at the Institute for Thermodynamics at the University of the Federal Armed Forces in Munich, Germany. The experimental setup and the integration of the air jet erosion test rig into the existing PWT will be elucidated. Different plasma sprayed TBC materials, including the standard TBC material yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), were investigated regarding their erosion resistance. For validation and verification, samples of nickel-based Mar-M 247 and INCO 718 alloys have been used.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Rhys-Jones, T., and Toriz, F., 1989, “Thermal Barrier Coatings for Turbine Application in Aero Engines,” High Temp. Technol., 7(2), pp. 73–81.
Bruce, R., 1998, “Development of 1232 °C (2250°F) Erosion and Impact Tests for Thermal Barrier Coatings,” Tribol. Trans., 41(4), pp. 399–410. [CrossRef]
Vasilevskii, E., Osiptsov, A., Chirikhin, A., and Yakovleva, L., 2001, “Heat Exchange on the Front Surface of a Blunt Body in a High-Speed Flow Containing Low-Inertia Particles,” J. Eng. Phys. Thermophys., 74(6), pp. 1399–1411. [CrossRef]
Tabakoff, W., 1995, “High-Temperature Erosion Resistance of Coatings for Use in Turbomachinery,” Wear, 186–187(1), pp. 224–229. [CrossRef]
Nicholls, J., Deakin, M., and Rickerby, D., 1995, “A Comparison Between the Erosion Behaviour of Thermal Spray and Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition Thermal Barrier Coatings,” Wear, 233–235, pp. 352–361. [CrossRef]
Thompson, J. A., and Clyne, T. W., 1999, “The Stiffness of Plasma Sprayed Zirconia Top Coats in TBCs,” United Thermal Spray Conference, Dusseldorf, Germany, Mar. 17–19, pp. 835–840.
Wiederhorn, S. M., and Hockey, B. J., 1983, “Effect of Material Parameters on the Erosion Resistance of Brittle Materials,” J. Mater. Sci., 18(3), pp. 766–780. [CrossRef]
Eaton, H., and Novak, R., 1989, “Erosion of Plasma Sprayed Porous Zirconia Under Differing Conditions,” Symposium on Corrosion and Particle Erosion at High Temperatures, Las Vegas, NV, Feb. 27–Mar. 3.
Janos, B., Lugscheider, E., and Remer, P., 1999, “Effect of Thermal Aging on the Erosion Resistance of Air Plasma Sprayed Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coating,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 113(3), pp. 278–285. [CrossRef]
Langkau, R., 1981, “Eine neue Forschungsanlage zur Untersuchung chemischer Reaktionen in Gasströmungen hoher Enthalpy,” Ph.D. thesis, University of the German Federal Armed Forces, Munich, Germany.
Kirschner, M., Sander, T., Mundt, Ch., 2013, “Laser Induced Fluorescence of Nitric Oxide A-X(0,0) in High Enthalpy Flow,” Lasermethoden in der Strömungsmesstechnik, Vol. 21, C.Kähler and E. R.Hain, eds., GALA e.V. German Association for Laser Anemometry, Munich, Germany, pp. 11.1–11.8.
Hatzl, S., Sander, T., and Mundt, Ch., 2011, “One-Dimensional Measurements of High Enthalpy Flow Temperature Using Spontaneous Raman Spectroscopy,” 17th AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonics Systems and Technologies Conference, San Francisco, CA, Apr. 11–14, Paper No. 2011-2212, pp. 130–138. [CrossRef]
Miller, R. A., Kuczmarski, M. A., and Zhu, D., 2010, “Burner Rig With an Unattached Duct for Evaluating the Erosion Resistance of Thermal Barrier Coatings,” NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Technical Memoriam No. TM-2011-217008.
Tabakoff, W., 1999, “Erosion Resistance of Superalloys and Different Coatings Exposed to Particulate Flows at High Temperature,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 120-121, pp. 542–547. [CrossRef]
Lindsley, B., Stein, K., and Marder, A., 1995, “The Design of a High-Temperature Erosion Apparatus for Studying Solid Particle Impact,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 6(8), pp. 1169–1174. [CrossRef]
Tabakoff, W., 1991, “Measurements of Particles Rebound Characteristics on Materials Used in Gas Turbines,” Jet Propul., 7(5), pp. 805–813. [CrossRef]
ASTM, 2007, “Standard Test Method for Conducting Erosion Tests by Solid Particle Impingement Using Gas Jets,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No. G76-07. [CrossRef]
Ceram, 2014, “Ceram Ingenieurkeramik, “Ceram GmbH, Albbruck-Birndorf, Germany,” http://www.ceram-gmbh.de/e_index.htm
Hatzl, S., Kirschner, M., Lippig, V., Sander, T., Mundt, Ch., and Pfitzner, M., 2014, “Direct Measurements of Infrared Normal Spectral Emissivity of Solid Materials for High-Temperature Applications,” Int. J. Thermophys., 34(11), pp. 2089–2101. [CrossRef]
Bach, F. W., and Duda, T., 2000, Moderne Beschichtungsverfahren, Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany.
Richard, W., 1998, “Multiphase Flow,” The Handbook of Fluid Dynamics, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID. Chap. 18.
Kirschner, M., and Mundt, Ch., 2011, “Particle Tracking Velocimetry in einem Hochenthalpiefreistrahl,” 15th DLR STAB-Workshop, Göttingen, Germany, Nov. 9–10.
Eriksson, R., 2011, High-Temperature Degradation of Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
Chen, X., He, M., Spitsberg, I., Fleck, N., Hutchinson, J., and Evans, A., 2004, “Mechanisms Governing the High Temperature Erosion of Thermal Barrier Coating,” Wear, 256(7–8), pp. 735–746. [CrossRef]
Handschuh, R., 1984, “High-Temperature Erosion of Plasma-Sprayed, Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia in a Simulated Turbine Environment,” NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Technical Paper No. 2406.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Photograph of the particle injection, the particle probe, specimen, and the baffle plate from above

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the high-temperature erosion test facility

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Scanning electron microscope image of Al2O3 particles used in the tests

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Size distribution of the used Al2O3 particles [18]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the thermal erosion cycling procedure for Mar-M 247

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of the thermal erosion cycling procedure for TBCs and INCO 718

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Typical surface temperature during a thermal load cycle for TBCs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Images of the injection process and the trajectories of the particles with varying injection angles (from front to back α = 43 deg, 53 deg, and 63 deg)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Scanning electron micrograph of Al2O3 particles after exposed to the high enthalpy flow

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Typical particle velocity distribution at the sample position

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Microstructure of the cross section of an FYSZ APS sample showing an edge zone of a none-eroded surface, but delamination

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Microstructure of the cross section of an FYSZ APS sample in the middle showing a strong eroded surface, small cracks sometimes observed beneath the densified layer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Erosion rate against time for two Mar-M 247 specimens at different feed rates

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Photograph of 8 wt.% Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 TBC after 120 s testing using a feed rate of 2 g/min

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Photograph of 8 wt.% Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 TBC after 900 s testing using a feed rate of 0.2 g/min

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Erosion rates of all TBCs including Mar-M 247 and INCO 718

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Measured erosion rate against microhardness HV0.5 (as sprayed), in comparison to the power law given in Ref. [9]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Microstructure of the cross section of a YSZ APS sample showing an edge zone of undamaged coating

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Microstructure of the cross section in the middle of a YSZ APS sample showing preferential surface erosion, microcracks, and delamination



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In