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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Aircraft Engine

Development and Integration of Rain Ingestion Effects in Engine Performance Simulations

[+] Author and Article Information
I. Roumeliotis

Laboratory of Thermal Turbomachines,
National Technical University of Athens,
Athens 15780, Greece
e-mail: jroume@ltt.ntua.gr

A. Alexiou

Laboratory of Thermal Turbomachines,
National Technical University of Athens,
Athens 15780, Greece
e-mail: a.alexiou@ltt.ntua.gr

N. Aretakis

Laboratory of Thermal Turbomachines,
National Technical University of Athens,
Athens 15780, Greece
e-mail: naret@central.ntua.gr

G. Sieros

Laboratory of Thermal Turbomachines,
National Technical University of Athens,
Athens 15780, Greece
e-mail: gsieros@cres.gr

K. Mathioudakis

Professor
Laboratory of Thermal Turbomachines,
National Technical University of Athens,
Athens 15780, Greece
e-mail: kmathiou@central.ntua.gr

1Present address: Section of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Hellenic Naval Academy, Piraeus, Greece.

Contributed by the Aircraft Engine Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 14, 2014; final manuscript received July 31, 2014; published online October 28, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(4), 041202 (Oct 28, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1387; doi: 10.1115/1.4028545 History: Received July 14, 2014; Revised July 31, 2014

Rain ingestion can significantly affect the performance and operability of gas turbine aero-engines. In order to study and understand rain ingestion phenomena at engine level, a performance model is required that integrates component models capable of simulating the physics of rain ingestion. The current work provides, for the first time in the open literature, information about the setup of a mixed-fidelity engine model suitable for rain ingestion simulation and corresponding overall engine performance results. Such a model can initially support an analysis of rain ingestion during the predesign phase of engine development. Once components and engine models are validated and calibrated versus experimental data, they can then be used to support certification tests, the extrapolation of ground test results to altitude conditions, the evaluation of control or engine hardware improvements and eventually the investigation of in-flight events. In the present paper, component models of various levels of fidelity are first described. These models account for the scoop effect at engine inlet, the fan effect and the effects of water presence in the operation and performance of the compressors and the combustor. Phenomena such as velocity slip between the liquid and gaseous phases, droplet breakup, droplet–surface interaction, droplet and film evaporation as well as compressor stages rematching due to evaporation are included in the calculations. Water ingestion influences the operation of the components and their matching, so in order to simulate rain ingestion at engine level, a suitable multifidelity engine model has been developed in the Proosis simulation platform. The engine model's architecture is discussed, and a generic high bypass turbofan is selected as a demonstration test case engine. The analysis of rain ingestion effects on engine performance and operability is performed for the worst case scenario, with respect to the water quantity entering the engine. The results indicate that rain ingestion has a strong negative effect on high-pressure compressor surge margin, fuel consumption, and combustor efficiency, while more than half of the water entering the core is expected to remain unevaporated and reach the combustor in the form of film.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Droplet cumulative distribution function (Weibull) at engine inlet for different mission phases

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Fig. 2

Droplet trajectories in a generic fan for different droplet diameters

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Fig. 3

Percentage of droplets impingement and retained on surfaces for Dd = 30 μm and Dd = 500 μm

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Fig. 4

Compressor map change due to water injection

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Fig. 5

Proosis engine schematic for rain ingestion

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Fig. 6

Droplets diameter distribution (PDF-Weibull) up to the fan inlet

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Fig. 7

Water content (WC) entering the engine core and bypass duct

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Fig. 8

Droplets diameter distribution (PDF-Weibull) up to the fan outer

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Fig. 9

Liquid water and film variation along the core

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Fig. 10

Droplets diameter distribution up to HPC inlet

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Fig. 11

Booster map (dry and wet) and corresponding operating points

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Fig. 12

HPC map (dry and wet) and corresponding operating points

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