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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Liquid Jets in Subsonic Air Crossflow at Elevated Pressure

[+] Author and Article Information
Jinkwan Song

Combustion Research Laboratory,
School of Aerospace Systems,
University of Cincinnati,
745 Baldwin Hall,
Cincinnati, OH 45221-0070
e-mail: jinkwasg@uc.edu

Charles Cary Cain

Combustion Research Laboratory,
School of Aerospace Systems,
University of Cincinnati,
745 Baldwin Hall,
Cincinnati, OH 45221-0070
e-mail: cccain@gmail.com

Jong Guen Lee

Mem. ASME
Combustion Research Laboratory,
School of Aerospace Systems,
University of Cincinnati,
745 Baldwin Hall,
Cincinnati, OH 45221-0070
e-mail: Jongguen.lee@uc.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 10, 2014; final manuscript received July 24, 2014; published online October 28, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(4), 041502 (Oct 28, 2014) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1369; doi: 10.1115/1.4028565 History: Received July 10, 2014; Revised July 24, 2014

The breakup, penetration, droplet size, and size distribution of a Jet A-1 fuel in air crossflow has been investigated with focus given to the impact of surrounding air pressure. Data have been collected by particle Doppler phased analyzer (PDPA), Mie-scattering with high speed photography augmented by laser sheet, and Mie-scattering with intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera augmented by nanopulse lamp. Nozzle orifice diameter, do, was 0.508 mm and nozzle orifice length to diameter ratio, lo/do, was 5.5. Air crossflow velocities ranged from 29.57 to 137.15 m/s, air pressures from 2.07 to 9.65 bar, and temperature held constant at 294.26 K. Fuel flow provides a range of fuel/air momentum flux ratio (q) from 5 to 25 and Weber number from 250 to 1000. From the results, adjusted correlation of the mean drop size has been proposed using drop size data measured by PDPA as follows: (D0/D32)=0.267Wea0.44q0.08(ρl/ρa)0.30(μl/μa)-0.16. This correlation agrees well and shows roles of aerodynamic Weber number, Wea, momentum flux ratio, q, and density ratio, ρl/ρa. Change of the breakup regime map with respect to surrounding air pressure has been observed and revealed that the boundary between each breakup modes can be predicted by a transformed correlation obtained from above correlation. In addition, the spray trajectory for the maximum Mie-scattering intensity at each axial location downstream of injector is extracted from averaged Mie-scattering images. From these results, correlations with the relevant parameters including q, x/do, density ratio, viscosity ratio, and Weber number are made over a range of conditions. According to spray trajectory at the maximum Mie-scattering intensity, the effect of surrounding air pressure becomes more important in the farfield. On the other hand, effect of aerodynamic Weber number is more important in the nearfield.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

High pressure chamber geometries

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Fig. 2

Test section geometry and diagnostic equipment focuses

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Fig. 4

The comparison between present data measured by PDPA and the correlation suggested by Ingebo [14]

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Fig. 5

The adjusted correlation of the mean drop size in terms of Wea, q, ρl/ρa, and μl/μa

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Fig. 6

The effect of the surrounding air pressure on the drop size distribution; (a) Wea = 500, q = 10 and (b) Wea = 1000, q = 10

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Fig. 7

The effects of the aerodynamic Weber number and momentum flux ratio on the drop size distribution; (a) Pa = 2.07 bar, q = 10 and (b) Wea = 250

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Fig. 8

Changes of the several different forms for mean drop size with respect to change of surrounding air pressure

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Fig. 9

The relation between D32 and D63.2%

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Fig. 10

Instantaneous images at each surrounding air pressure with aerodynamic Weber number of 500 and q of 10; (a) Pa = 2.07 bar (transition), (b) Pa = 3.45 bar (transition), (c) Pa = 6.89 bar (transition), and (d) Pa = 9.65 bar (transition)

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Fig. 11

Instantaneous images at each surrounding air pressure with surrounding air pressure of 6.89 bar and q of 10; (a) Wea = 250 (multimode), (b) Wea = 750 (transition), and (c) Wea = 1000 (shear)

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Fig. 12

Jet breakup regime map at each surrounding air pressure; (a) Pa = 2.07 bar, (b) Pa = 3.45 bar, (c) Pa = 6.89 bar, and (d) Pa = 9.65 bar

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Fig. 13

The trajectory correlations of spray for the maximum Mie-scattering intensity

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Fig. 14

Nearfield correlation change with respect to aerodynamic Weber number change

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Fig. 15

Farfield correlation change with respect to aerodynamic Weber number change

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Fig. 16

Nearfield correlation change with respect to surrounding air pressure change

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Fig. 17

Farfield correlation change with respect to surrounding air pressure change

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Fig. 18

Comparison between volume flux measured by PDPA and Mie-scattering intensity taken by high speed camera; (a) volume flux and valid rate in Wea = 250 and 1000 and (b) corrected volume flux and Mie-scattering intensity profile

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