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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Cycle Innovations

Application of Boil Off Gas Compressors in Liquefied Natural Gas Plants

[+] Author and Article Information
Mustapha Chaker, Cyrus B. Meher-Homji, Pradeep Pillai, Dipanjan Bhattacharya, David Messersmith

Bechtel Corporation,
Houston, TX 77056

Contributed by the Cycle Innovations Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 8, 2014; final manuscript received August 15, 2014; published online November 11, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(4), 041702 (Apr 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1474; doi: 10.1115/1.4028576 History: Received August 08, 2014; Revised August 15, 2014; Online November 11, 2014

This paper discusses complexities and challenges of managing boil off gas (BOG) in liquefied natural gas (LNG) liquefaction plants. Most publications in the past have focused on regasification terminals and have not addressed the area of liquefaction plants. The paper discusses the generation and management of BOG and the associated networks and machinery to manage it. BOG options available for both Greenfield plants and in debottlenecking situations are covered. The advantages and disadvantages of different options and compressor systems are covered and the concept of dynamic simulation as an analysis tool is addressed.

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References

Meher-Homji, C. B., Yates, D., Weyermann, H. P., Masani, K., Ransbarger, W., and Gandhi, S., 2007, “Aeroderivative Gas Turbine Drivers for the ConocoPhillips Optimized Cascade LNG Process—World's First Application and Future Potential,” 15th International Conference on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG15), Barcelona, Spain, Apr. 24–27, Paper No. PS2-6.
Meher-Homji, C. B., Matthews, T., Pelagotti, A., and Weyermann, H. P., 2011, “LNG Turbomachinery,” Proceedings of the 1st Middle East Turbomachinery Symposium (METS-I), Doha, Qatar, Feb. 13–16.
Shin, M. W., Jang, N., Shin, D., Han, C., Choi, S. H., and Yoon, E. S., 2009, “A Method of Optimal Operating of BOG Compressors in a LNG Gasification Plant,” First Annual Gas Processing Symposium, Doha, Qatar, Jan. 10–12.
Park, C., Lee, C. J., Lim, Y., Lee, S., and Han, C., 2010, “Optimization of Recirculation Operating in Liquefied Natural Gas Receiving Terminal,” J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 41(4), pp. 482–491. [CrossRef]
Shin, M. W., Shin, D., Choi, S. H., Yoon, E. S., and Han, C., 2007, “Optimization of the Operation of Boil-Off Gas Compressors at a Liquefied Natural Gas Gasification Plant,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 46(20), pp. 6540–6545. [CrossRef]
Sayyaadi, H., and Babaelahi, M., 2010, “Thermoeconomic Optimization of a Cryogenic Refrigeration Cycle for Re-Liquefaction of the LNG Boil-off Gas,” Int. J. Refrig., 33(6), pp. 1197–1207. [CrossRef]
Shin, Y., and Lee, Y. P., 2009, “Design of a Boil-Off Natural Gas Reliquefaction Control System for LNG Carriers,” Appl. Energy, 86(1), pp. 37–44. [CrossRef]
Querol, E., Gonzalez-Regueral, B., García-Torrent, J., and García-Martínez, M. J., 2010, “Boil Off Gas (BOG) Management in Spanish Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) Terminals,” Appl. Energy, 87(11), pp. 3384–3392. [CrossRef]
Han, C., and Lim, Y., 2012, “LNG Processing: From Liquefaction to Storage,” 11th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering, Singapore, July 15–19, pp. 925–929.
Pillai, P., Messersmith, D., Yao, J., Chaker, M., and Meher-Homji, C. B., 2013, “BOG Optimization in LNG Plants,” 92nd Gas Producers Association Conference, San Antonio, TX, Apr. 7–10, pp. 99–106.
Faruque Hasan, M. M., Zheng, A. M., and Karimi, I. A., 2009, “Minimizing Boil‐Off Losses in Liquefied Natural Gas Transportation,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 48(21), pp. 9571–9580. [CrossRef]
Cryostar, 2010, “Special Report: Reliquefaction System EcoRel,” The Cryostar Magazine, Autumn, available at: http://www.cryostar.com/magazine/cryostar_magazine10.pdf
Dresser-Rand, 2004, “Boil Off Gas Compressors,” Dresser-Rand Corp., Houston, TX, available at: http://www.dresser-rand.com/literature/recip/2080-BOGcomp.pdf
Brink, S.-E., 2010, “LNG16 X-Pert Center: Single Shaft Turbocompressor for BOG Recovery in LNG Terminals,” Siemens AG Energy, Duisburg, Germany, available at: http://www.energy.siemens.com/us/pool/hq/energy-topics/tradeshows/lng-16/BOG%20for%20receiving%20terminals.pdf
Bhattacharya, D., and Bandari, B., 2013, “Boil Off Gas System Design for Integrated Liquefaction and Regasification Facilities,” AIChE Spring Meeting and Global Congress on Process Safety, San Antonio, TX, Apr. 29.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Large liquefaction single train facility [2]

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Fig. 2

Size of LNG liquefaction plants over time [3]

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the ConocoPhillips Optimized Cascade Process® [2]

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Fig. 4

Generation of BOG within the LNG chain [12]

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Fig. 5

Envelope of varying conditions for different operating scenarios

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Fig. 6

Heat contribution factors generating BOG

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Fig. 7

EcoRel reliquefaction system developed by Cryostar [13]

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Fig. 8

Reciprocating BOG compressor

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Fig. 9

Typical overhung BOG design

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Fig. 10

Between the bearing BOG compressor with variable IGV [14]

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Fig. 11

Flows and pressure ratios (four cases) used for comparisons between compressor types, inlet temperature = −160 °C

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Fig. 12

Discharge temperature comparison between integrally geared and between the bearing designs

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Fig. 13

Power consumed comparison between integrally geared and between the bearing designs

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Fig. 14

Scatter plot showing BOG compressor parameters—power and pressure ratio (land based applications)

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Fig. 15

Scatter plot showing BOG compressor parameters showing inlet temperature and differential pressure (land based applications)

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Fig. 16

Scatter plot showing BOG compressor parameters showing rated power and pressure ratio (land based applications)

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Fig. 17

Scatter plot showing BOG compressor parameters showing rated power and pressure ratio (carrier based applications)

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Fig. 18

Scatter plot showing BOG compressor parameters showing differential pressure and inlet temperature (carrier based applications)

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Fig. 19

Simulation results of the tank pressure change for numbers of compressors [4]

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Fig. 20

ship vapor generation and tank pressure

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Fig. 22

Tank pressure and liquid level simulation

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Fig. 23

Conditions during hold mode

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Fig. 24

BOG flow variation

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