0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Analysis of Azimuthal Thermo-acoustic Modes in Annular Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers

[+] Author and Article Information
Mirko R. Bothien

Alstom,
Baden 5400, Switzerland
e-mail: mirko.bothien@power.alstom.com

Nicolas Noiray, Bruno Schuermans

Alstom,
Baden 5400, Switzerland

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 29, 2014; final manuscript received September 23, 2014; published online December 9, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(6), 061505 (Jun 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1447; doi: 10.1115/1.4028718 History: Received July 29, 2014; Revised September 23, 2014; Online December 09, 2014

Modern gas turbine combustors operating in lean-premixed mode are prone to thermo-acoustic instabilities. In annular combustion chambers, usually azimuthal acoustic modes are the critical ones interacting with the flame. In case of constructive interference, high amplitude oscillations might result. In this paper, the azimuthal acoustic field of a full-scale engine is investigated in detail. The analyses are based on measurements in a full-scale gas turbine, analytical models to derive the system dynamics, as well as simulations performed with an in-house 3d nonlinear network model. It is shown that the network model is able to reproduce the behavior observed in the engine. Spectra, linear growth rates, as well as the statistics of the system's dynamics can be predicted. A previously introduced algorithm is used to extract linear growth rates from engine and model time domain data. The method's accuracy is confirmed by comparison of the routine's results to analytically determined growth rates from the network model. The network model is also used to derive a burner staging configuration, resulting in the decrease of linear growth rate and thus an increase of engine operation regime; model predictions are verified by full-scale engine measurements. A thorough investigation of the azimuthal modes statistics is performed. Additionally, the network model is used to show that an unfavorable flame temperature distribution with an amplitude of merely 1% of the mean flame temperature can change the azimuthal mode from dominantly rotating to dominantly standing. This is predicted by the network model that only takes into account flame fluctuations in axial direction.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by Alstom
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Bothien, M., Noiray, N., and Schuermans, B., 2013, “A Novel Damping Device for Broadband Attenuation of Low-Frequency Combustion Pulsations in Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(4), p. 041504. [CrossRef]
Krebs, W., Flohr, P., Prade, B., and Hoffmann, S., 2002, “Thermoacoustic Stability Chart for High Intensity Gas Turbine Combustion System,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 174(7), pp. 99–128. [CrossRef]
Seume, J. R., Vortmeyer, N., Krause, W., Hermann, J., Hantschk, C., Zangl, P., Gleis, S., Vortmeyer, D., and Orthmann, A., 1998, “Application of Active Combustion Instability Control to a Heavy Duty Gas Turbine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 120(4), pp. 721–726. [CrossRef]
Noiray, N., and Schuermans, B., 2013, “On the Dynamic Nature of Azimuthal Thermoacoustic Modes in Annular Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers,” Proc. R. Soc. A, 469(2151), p. 20120535. [CrossRef]
Staffelbach, G., Gicquel, L. Y. M., Boudier, G., and Poinsot, T., 2009, “Large Eddy Simulation of Self Excited Azimuthal Modes in Annular Combustors,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 32(2), pp. 2909–2916. [CrossRef]
Wolf, P., Staffelbach, G., Gicquel, L., Müller, J., and Poinsot, T., 2012, “Acoustic and Large Eddy Simulation Studies of Azimuthal Modes in Annular Combustion Chambers,” Combust. Flame, 159(11), pp. 3398–3413. [CrossRef]
Evesque, S., Polifke, W., and Pankiewitz, C., 2003, “Spinning and Azimuthally Standing Acoustic Modes in Annular Combustors,” AIAA Paper No. 2003-3182. [CrossRef]
Schuermans, B., Paschereit, C. O., and Monkewitz, P., 2006, “Non-Linear Combustion Instabilities in Annular Gas Turbine Combustors,” AIAA Paper No. 2006-0549. [CrossRef]
Morgans, A. S., and Stow, S. R., 2007, “Model-Based Control of Combustion Instabilities in Annular Combustors,” Combust. Flame, 150(4), pp. 380–399. [CrossRef]
Stow, S. R., and Dowling, A. P., 2009, “A Time-Domain Network Model for Nonlinear Thermoacoustic Oscillations,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 131(3), p. 031502. [CrossRef]
Noiray, N., Bothien, M., and Schuermans, B., 2011, “Investigation of Azimuthal Staging Concepts in Annular Gas Turbine,” Combust. Theory Modell., 15(5), pp. 585–606. [CrossRef]
Ghirardo, G., and Juniper, M. P., 2013, “Azimuthal Instabilities in Annular Combustors: Standing and Spinning Modes,” Proc. R. Soc. A, 469(2157), p. 20130232. [CrossRef]
Worth, N. A., and Dawson, J. R., 2013, “Modal Dynamics of Self-Excited Azimuthal Instabilities in an Annular Combustion Chamber,” Combust. Flame, 160(11), pp. 2476–2489. [CrossRef]
Cohen, J., Hagen, G., Banaszuk, A., Becz, S., and Mehta, P., 2011, “Attenuation of Combustor Pressure Oscillations Using Symmetry Breaking,” AIAA Paper No. GT2011-0060. [CrossRef]
Moeck, J. P., Paul, M., and Paschereit, C. O., 2010, “Thermoacoustic Instabilities in an Annular Rijke Tube,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-23577. [CrossRef]
Bourgouin, J.-F., Durox, D., Moeck, J. P., Schuller, T., and Candel, S., 2013, “Self-Sustained Instabilities in an Annular Combustor Coupled by Azimuthal and Longitudinal Acoustic Modes,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95010. [CrossRef]
Kunze, K., Hirsch, C., and Sattelmayer, T., 2004, “Transfer Function Measurement on a Swirl Stabilized Premix Burner in an Annular Combustion Chamber,” ASME Paper No. GT2004-53106. [CrossRef]
Kopitz, J., Huber, A., Sattelmayer, T., and Polifke, W., 2005, “Thermoacoustic Stability Analysis of an Annular Combustion Chamber With Acoustic Low Order Modeling and Validation Against Experiment,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68797. [CrossRef]
Schuermans, B., Bellucci, V., and Paschereit, C. O., 2003, “Thermoacoustic Modeling and Control of Multi Burner Combustion Systems,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38688. [CrossRef]
Bellucci, V., Schuermans, B., Nowak, D., Flohr, P., and Paschereit, C. O., 2005, “Thermoacoustic Modeling of a Gas Turbine Combustor Equipped With Acoustic Dampers,” ASME J. Turbomach., 127(2), pp. 372–379. [CrossRef]
Paschereit, C. O., and Polifke, W., 1998, “Investigation of the Thermoacoustic Characteristics of a Lean Premixed Gas Turbine Burner,” ASME Paper No. 98-GT-582.
Noiray, N., and Schuermans, B., 2012, “Deterministic Quantities Characterizing Noise Driven Hopf Bifurcations in Gas Turbine Combustor,” Int. J. Non-linear Mech., 50, pp. 152–163. [CrossRef]
Bothien, M. R., Moeck, J. P., and Paschereit, C. O., 2010, “Comparison of Linear Stability Analysis With Experiments by Actively Tuning the Acoustic Boundary Conditions of a Premixed Combustor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(12), p. 121502. [CrossRef]
Bothien, M. R., 2008, “Impedance Tuning: A Method for Active Control of the Acoustic Boundary Conditions of Combustion Test Rigs,” Ph.D. thesis, Institut für Strömungsmechanik und Technische Akustik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
Rowley, C. W., Williams, D. R., Colonius, T., Murray, R. M., and Macmynoski, D. G., 2006, “Linear Models for Control of Cavity Flow Oscillations,” J. Fluid Mech., 547, pp. 317–330. [CrossRef]
Lieuwen, T. C., 2002, “Experimental Investigation of Limit-Cycle Oscillations in an Unstable Gas Turbine Combustor,” J. Propul. Power, 18(1), pp. 61–67. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Ta3 network diagram to model the engine thermo-acoustics

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Simulated spectra (bottom) and corresponding system eigenvalues (top) for different ΔT/T¯

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Averaged modal amplitudes from Ta3 simulations at various ΔT/T¯

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Joint probability densities obtained from simulations at various ΔT/T¯ (see also Figs. 3 and 4)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Averaged spectra baseline configuration. Top: Ta3 simulations; bottom: full-scale engine measurements.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Eigenvalues baseline configuration (growth rate in % of first azimuthal mode's frequency). Top: calculated from Ta3 (○) and system identification applied to Ta3 with arctangent (+) and cubic (×) nonlinearity; bottom: nonlinear system identification applied to engine data.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Joint probability density functions of modal amplitudes a and b (cf. to Eq. (5)) extracted from Ta3 simulations (top) and engine measurements (bottom). Baseline configuration.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Spatially averaged spectra: baseline and optimized configuration. Top: Ta3 simulations; bottom: full-scale engine measurements. Black: baseline, red: optimized configuration.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Eigenvalues baseline and optimized configuration (growth rate in % of first azimuthal mode's frequency). Top: calculated from Ta3 (baseline: black ○, optimized: red ) and system identification applied to Ta3 with arctangent saturation (baseline: black × , optimized: red *); bottom: identified eigenvalues of dominant mode for engine measurement.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Joint probability density functions of modal amplitudes a and b (cf. to Eq. (5)) extracted from Ta3 simulations (top) and engine measurements (bottom). Optimized configuration.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In