0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Predictions of Operational Degradation of the Fan Stage of an Aircraft Engine Due to Particulate Ingestion

[+] Author and Article Information
Maria Grazia De Giorgi

Department of Engineering for Innovation,
University of Salento,
Via Per Monteroni,
Lecce 73100, Italy
e-mail: mariagrazia.degiorgi@unisalento.it

Stefano Campilongo

Department of Engineering for Innovation,
University of Salento,
Via Per Monteroni,
Lecce 73100, Italy
e-mail: stefano.campilongo@unisalento.it

Antonio Ficarella

Mem. ASME
Department of Engineering for Innovation,
University of Salento,
Via Per Monteroni,
Lecce 73100, Italy
e-mail: antonio.ficarella@unisalento.it

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 23, 2014; final manuscript received July 16, 2014; published online December 2, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(5), 052603 (May 01, 2015) (15 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1301; doi: 10.1115/1.4028769 History: Received June 23, 2014; Revised July 16, 2014; Online December 02, 2014

A numerical evaluation of the effects of volcanic ash ingestion in a turbofan engine was carried out, with particular regard to the prediction of the erosion damage to fan blades. The ash concentration level examined in the study was below the flight limit because the aim of this study is to investigate the damage due to long-term exposure to low concentration levels. The work aims to the implementation of a numerical methodology that takes into account the geometry change of the fan blades during the exposure to volcanic ash. A dimensional and morphological characterization of a real volcanic ash sample from the Mount Etna volcano has been performed to model the particle flow dynamics using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The fan performance in terms of the total pressure increase was calculated for both the baseline and damaged geometries to quantify the performance deterioration trend with respect to the particle exposure time. For the calculation of the eroded fan performance, two different numerical approaches were considered. In the first approach, the erosion rate (ER) was evaluated based on the initial blade geometry and was held constant. In the second approach, the ER was updated as the erosion of the blade continued. The second approach shows a higher deterioration of the pressure rise across the fan, suggesting that the variation of the ER due to the blade shape modification cannot be neglected in the calculations.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Dunn, M. G., 2012, “Operation of Gas Turbine Engines in an Environment Contaminated With Volcanic Ash,” ASME J. Turbomach., 134(5), p. 051001. [CrossRef]
Pieri, D. C., and Oeding, R., 1991, “Preliminary Analyses of Volcanic Ash on an Aircraft Windscreen: The December 15, 1989 Redoubt Encounter,” Airborne Hazards From Volcanic Ash Colloquium, Boeing Aircraft, Seattle, WA.
Grindle, T. J., and Burcham, F. W. J., 2003, “Engine Damage to a NASA DC-8-72 Airplane From a High-Altitude Encounter With a Diffuse Volcanic Ash Cloud,” NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, Technical Report No. NASA/TM-2003-212030.
Hamed, A., Singh, D., and Tabakoff, W., 1998, “Modeling of Compressor Performance Deterioration Due to Erosion,” Int. J. Rotating Mach., 4(4), pp. 243–248. [CrossRef]
Balan, C., and Tabakoff, W., 1983, “A Method of Predicting the Performance Deterioration of a Compressor Cascade Due to Sand Erosion,” AIAA Paper No. 83-0178. [CrossRef]
Hamed, A., and Tabakoff, W., 2006, “Erosion and Deposition in Turbomachinery,” J. Propul. Power, 22(2), pp. 350–360. [CrossRef]
Dunn, M. G., Padova, C., Moller, J. E., and Adams, R. M., 1987, “Performance Deterioration of a Turbofan and a Turbojet Engine Upon Exposure to a Dust Environment,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 109(3), pp. 336–343. [CrossRef]
Balan, C., and Tabakoff, W., 1984, “Axial Compressor Performance Deterioration,” AIAA Paper No. 84-1208. [CrossRef]
Richardson, J. H., Sallee, G. P., and Smakula, F. K., 1979, “Causes of High Pressure Compressor Deterioration in Service,” AIAA Paper No. 79-1234. [CrossRef]
Muir, D., Saravanamutto, H., and Marshall, D., 1989, “Health Monitoring of Variable Geometry Turbines for the Canadian Navy,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 111(2), pp. 244–250. [CrossRef]
Suzuki, M., Inaba, K., and Yamamoto, M., 2007, “Numerical Simulation of Sand Erosion Phenomena in Rotor/Stator Interaction of Compressor,” 8th International Symposium on Experimental and Computational Aerothermodynamics of Internal Flow, Lyon, France, July 2–5, Paper No. ISAIF8-0093.
Kumar, A., Nair, P. B., and Keane, A. J., 2005, “Probabilistic Performance Analysis of Eroded Compressor Blades,” ASME Paper No. PWR2005-50070. [CrossRef]
Finnie, I., 1958, “The Mechanism of Erosion of Ductile Metals,” 3rd U.S. National Congress of Applied Mechanics, Providence, RI, June 11–14, pp. 527–532.
Bitter, J. G. A., 1963, “A Study of Erosion Phenomena Part I,” Wear, 6(1), pp. 5–21. [CrossRef]
Bitter, J. G. A., 1963, “A Study of Erosion Phenomena Part II,” Wear, 6(3), pp. 169–190. [CrossRef]
Neilson, J. H., and Gilchrist, A., 1968, “Erosion by a Stream of Solid Particles,” Wear, 11(2), pp. 111–122. [CrossRef]
Dobrowolski, B., and Wydrych, J., 2006, “Evaluation of Numerical Models for Prediction of Areas Subjected to Erosion Wear,” Int. J. Appl. Mech. Eng., 11(4), pp. 735–749.
Corsini, A., Rispoli, F., Sheard, A., and Venturini, P., 2012, “Numerical Simulation of Coal Flt-Ash Erosion in an Induced Draft Fan,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-9048. [CrossRef]
Ghenaiet, A., 2012, “Effects of Solid Particle Ingestion Through an HP Turbine,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-69875. [CrossRef]
Hamed, A., and Tabakoff, W., 1994, “Experimental and Numerical Simulations of the Effects of Ingested Particles in Gas Turbine Engines,” Erosion, Corrosion and Foreign Object Effects in Gas Turbines, von Karman Institute, Rhode-St-Genese, Belgium.
Mele, D., Dellino, P., Sulpizio, R., and Braia, G., 2011, “A Systematic Investigation on the Aerodynamics of Ash Particles,” J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 203(1–2), pp. 1–11. [CrossRef]
Coltelli, M., Miraglia, L., and Scollo, S., 2008, “Characterization of Shape and Terminal Velocity of Tephra Particles Erupted During the 2002 Eruption of Etna Volcano,” Bull. Volcanol., 70(9), pp. 1103–1112. [CrossRef]
Ersoy, O., 2012, “Surface Area and Volume Measurements of Volcanic Ash Particles by SEM Stereoscopic Imaging,” J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 190(3–4), pp. 290–296. [CrossRef]
Strazisar, A. J., Wood, J. R., Hathaway, M. D., and Suder, K. L., 1989, “Laser Anemometer Measurements in a Transonic Axial Flow Fan Rotor,” NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Technical Report No. NASA TP-2879.
Narejo, A. A., 2008, “3D Design and Simulations of NASA Rotor 67,” Master’s thesis, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
Iyengar, V., 2004, “Advanced Control Techniques for Modern Compressor Rotors,” Special Problem Report, School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.
Ji, L., Tian, Y., Li, W., Yi, W., and Wen, Q., 2012, “Numerical Studies on Improving Performance of Rotor 67 by Blended Blade and Endwall Technique,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-68535. [CrossRef]
Jinsheng, W., Haiying, Q., and Junzong, Z., 2011, “Experimental Study of Settling and Drag on Cuboids With Square Base,” Particuology, 9(3), pp. 298–305. [CrossRef]
National Instruments, 2004, “IMAQ Vision for LabVIEW™ User Manual,” National Instruments, Austin, TX.
ANSYS, 2012, “ANSYS FLUENT Theory Guide,” Release 14.5, ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA.
Patankar, S. V., and Spalding, D. B., 1972, “A Calculation Procedure for Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer in Three-Dimensional Parabolic Flows,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 15(10), pp. 1787–1806. [CrossRef]
Shih, T. H., Liou, W. W., Shabbir, A., and Zhu, J. A., 1995, “A new kε Eddy-Viscosity Model for High Reynolds Number Turbulent Flows—Model Development and Validation,” Comput. Fluids, 24(3), pp. 227–239. [CrossRef]
Kim, S. E., Choudhury, D., and Patel, B., 1997, “Computations of Complex Turbulent Flows Using the Commercial Code ANSYS FLUENT,” ICASE/LaRC/AFOSR Symposium on Modeling Complex Turbulent Flows, Hampton, VA, Aug. 11–13.
Fan, L., Yang, C., Yu, G. Z., and Mao, Z. S., 2003, “Empirical Correlation of Drag Coefficient for Settling Slender Particles With Large Aspect Ratio,” J. Chem. Ind. Eng., 54(10), pp. 1501–1503.
Haider, A., and Levenspiel, O., 1989, “Drag Coefficient and Terminal Velocity of Spherical and Nonspherical Particles,” Powder Technol., 58(1), pp. 63–70. [CrossRef]
Chen, X., McLaury, B.-S., and Shirazib, S.-A., 2006, “Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Relative Erosion Severity Between Plugged Tees and Elbows in Dilute Gas/Solid Two-Phase Flow,” Wear, 261(7), pp. 715–729. [CrossRef]
Eyler, R., 1987, “Design and Analysis of a Pneumatic Flow Loop,” Master’s thesis, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV.
NPARC, 2008, “Examining Spatial (Grid) Convergence,” NPARC Alliance CFD Verification and Validation, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, available at: http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/wind/valid/tutorial/spatconv.html
Hamed, A., Tabakoff, W., Rivir, R., Das, K., and Arora, P., 2004, “Turbine Blade Surface Deterioration by Erosion,” ASME J. Turbomach., 127(3), pp. 445–452. [CrossRef]
Suder, K. L., Chima, R. V., Strazisar, A. J., and Roberts, W. B., 1995, “The Effect of Adding Roughness and Thickness to a Transonic Axial Compressor rotor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117(4), pp. 491–505. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Volcanic ash sample size distribution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Electron microscopy SEM image of the sample

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Elbow computational grid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Comparison between numerical predictions (CFD) and experimental data (EXP) [37]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

NASA Rotor 67 grid of the hub and blade walls

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison between numerical predictions (CFD) and experimental data (EXP) of the total pressure ratio across the fan

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison between numerical predictions (right) and experimental data (left) of relative Mach number at 90% (up) and 30% (bottom) spanwise distance from the hub

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Total number of computed particles trajectories

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Particle tracks around the blades

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

ER on suction side, tip, and pressure side

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

ER trend for the second calculation approach, mean and maximum values on pressure and suction sides

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Eroded blades as predicted by the first (up) and the second (bottom) calculation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Erosion depth at different spanwise distance from the hub for the first calculation approach after 700 h (LE = leading edge and TE = trailing edge)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Erosion depth at different spanwise distance from the hub for the second calculation approach after 700 h (LE = leading edge and TE = trailing edge)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Static pressure contour on the pressure side for: (a) baseline geometry, eroded geometry with the first (b), and the second (c) calculation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Total pressure contours at 50% spanwise distance from the hub for: (a) baseline geometry; eroded geometry with the first (b) and the second (c) calculation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Total pressure contour at 90% spanwise distance from the hub for: (a) baseline geometry; eroded geometry with the first (b) and the second (c) calculation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Velocity magnitude contours at 90% spanwise for: (a) baseline geometry; eroded geometry with the first (b) and the second (c) calculation approach

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Comparison of spanwise distribution of the total pressure rise at the rotor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Comparison between total pressure ratio at the outlet for all the considered approaches

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In