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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Model Analysis of Syngas Combustion and Emissions for a Micro Gas Turbine

[+] Author and Article Information
Chi-Rong Liu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Chang Gung University,
Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
e-mail: liuchihzong@gmail.com

Hsin-Yi Shih

Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Chang Gung University,
Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
e-mail: hyshih@mail.cgu.edu.tw

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 19, 2014; final manuscript received October 19, 2014; published online December 9, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(6), 061507 (Jun 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1494; doi: 10.1115/1.4029102 History: Received August 19, 2014; Revised October 19, 2014; Online December 09, 2014

The purpose of this study is to investigate the combustion and emission characteristics of syngas fuels applied in a micro gas turbine, which is originally designed for a natural gas fired engine. The computation results were conducted by a numerical model, which consists of the three-dimension compressible k–ε model for turbulent flow and PPDF (presumed probability density function) model for combustion process. As the syngas is substituted for methane, the fuel flow rate and the total heat input to the combustor from the methane/syngas blended fuels are varied with syngas compositions and syngas substitution percentages. The computed results presented the syngas substitution effects on the combustion and emission characteristics at different syngas percentages (up to 90%) for three typical syngas compositions and the conditions where syngas applied at fixed fuel flow rate and at fixed heat input were examined. Results showed the flame structures varied with different syngas substitution percentages. The high temperature regions were dense and concentrated on the core of the primary zone for H2-rich syngas, and then shifted to the sides of the combustor when syngas percentages were high. The NOx emissions decreased with increasing syngas percentages, but NOx emissions are higher at higher hydrogen content at the same syngas percentage. The CO2 emissions decreased for 10% syngas substitution, but then increased as syngas percentage increased. Only using H2-rich syngas could produce less carbon dioxide. The detailed flame structures, temperature distributions, and gas emissions of the combustor were presented and compared. The exit temperature distributions and pattern factor (PF) were also discussed. Before syngas fuels are utilized as an alternative fuel for the micro gas turbine, further experimental testing is needed as the modeling results provide a guidance for the improved designs of the combustor.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the innovative micro gas turbine

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Fig. 2

The modeled can combustor

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Fig. 3

(a) The grid structure of the model (upper) and (b) the combustor liner (bottom)

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Fig. 4

Fuel flow rate and heat input for various syngas percentages and syngas compositions (H2:CO = 80:20, H2:CO = 50:50, and H2:CO = 20:80)

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Fig. 5

Flame structures of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% H2-rich syngas substitution

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Fig. 6

The effects of syngas substitution on the flame temperature including average temperature in the primary zone (Tpz,avg), exit temperature of the combustor (T4,avg), and PF

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Fig. 7

Flame profiles on the axial centerline planes for different syngas compositions and syngas percentages

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Fig. 8

Combustor exit temperature and PF for different syngas compositions and syngas percentages as syngas applied at constant fuel flow rate

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Fig. 9

(a) Total NOx and CO2 emission and (b) NOx and CO2 emission per unit heat input at constant fuel flow rate

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Fig. 10

Flame profiles on the axial centerline planes for different syngas compositions and syngas percentages

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Fig. 11

Average exit temperature and PF for different syngas percentage and syngas composition at constant heat input

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Fig. 12

Temperature distributions of combustor exit for (a) 80% H2-rich syngas and (b) 80% H2-lean syngas at constant heat input

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Fig. 13

(a) Total NOx and CO2 emission and (b) NOx and CO2 emission per unit fuel consumption at constant heat input

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