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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Roles of Organic Emissions in the Formation of Near Field Aircraft-Emitted Volatile Particulate Matter: A Kinetic Microphysical Modeling Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Hsi-Wu Wong

Center for Aero-Thermodynamics,
Aerodyne Research, Inc.,
45 Manning Road,
Billerica, MA 01821
e-mails: hwwong@aerodyne.com;
HsiWu_Wong@uml.edu

Mina Jun

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
77 Massachusetts Avenue,
Cambridge, MA 02139
e-mail: minajun@mit.edu

Jay Peck

Center for Aero-Thermodynamics,
Aerodyne Research, Inc.,
45 Manning Road,
Billerica, MA 01821
e-mail: jpeck@aerodyne.com

Ian A. Waitz

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
77 Massachusetts Avenue,
Cambridge, MA 022139
e-mail: iaw@mit.edu

Richard C. Miake-Lye

Center for Aero-Thermodynamics,
Aerodyne Research, Inc.,
45 Manning Road,
Billerica, MA 01821
e-mail: rick@aerodyne.com

1Present address: University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854.

2Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 22, 2014; final manuscript received November 19, 2014; published online January 21, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(7), 072606 (Jul 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1507; doi: 10.1115/1.4029366 History: Received August 22, 2014; Revised November 19, 2014; Online January 21, 2015

A kinetic microphysical modeling approach that describes the formation of volatile aerosols in the presence of organic emissions in near field aircraft emitted plumes at ground level is presented. Our model suggests that self nucleation of organic species, binary nucleation of water-soluble organic vapors with water, and multicomponent nucleation of water-soluble organic vapors with sulfuric acid and water all have very slow nucleation rates. The formation of new homogeneous particles in near field aircraft plumes is thus considered to be driven by binary nucleation of sulfuric acid and water. Volatile organic vapors emitted from aircraft engines primarily contribute to the nucleation process by condensing on existing homogeneous aerosols and only affect the size and the composition (not the number) of the homogeneous aerosols. Our model also shows that under low ambient relative humidity levels or high ambient temperatures, nucleation mode particles are more organic-rich than soot coatings. Organic mass fraction of nucleation mode particles is more sensitive to organic emissions levels compared to that of soot coatings. Ambient temperature and relative humidity were also predicted to affect the nucleation of sulfuric acid–water cores, where higher ambient relative humidity level and lower ambient temperature strongly favor binary sulfuric acid–water nucleation. The effect of ambient conditions on organic fractions was predicted to be relatively insignificant.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Possible pathways of homogeneous particle nucleation involving organic vapors considered in our model development

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Fig. 2

Concentrations (N, in cm−3) of homogeneous liquid embryos produced from (a) unary nucleation of six surrogate organic species and (b) binary H2SO4–H2O nucleation as a function of downstream distance from the engine

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Fig. 3

The size evolution of homogeneous nucleation mode particles: (a) concentrations of the sulfuric acid—water cores and (b) homogeneous particle size growth resulted from organic emissions

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Fig. 4

Predicted composition evolution of aircraft emitted particles: (a) homogeneous nucleation mode particles and (b) coatings of soot mode particles

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Fig. 5

The effect of organic emissions level at the engine plane on (a) soot particle size as a function of downstream distance and (b) homogeneous particle size distributions at 1000 m downstream

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Fig. 6

Predicted mass fractions of soot coatings and homogeneous nucleated particles at three different downstream distances when initial organic emissions levels were varied from 200 to 800 ppb

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Fig. 7

Predicted effect of ambient temperature on (a) percentages of sulfuric acid and organics on soot mode and nucleation mode particles and (b) compositions of soot coatings and nucleation mode particles at 1000 m downstream

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Fig. 8

Predicted effect of ambient relative humidity on (a) percentages of sulfuric acid and organics on soot mode and nucleation mode particles and (b) compositions of soot coatings and nucleation mode particles at 1000 m downstream

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