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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Atomization Characteristics of Camelina-Based Alternative Aviation Fuels Discharging From Dual-Orifice Injector

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Sivakumar

Associate Professor
Mem. ASME
Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore 560012, India
e-mail: dskumar@aero.iisc.ernet.in

R. Sakthikumar

Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore 560012, India
e-mail: rcsakthikumar@gmail.com

B. N. Raghunandan

Professor
Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore 560012, India
e-mail: raghubn@aero.iisc.ernet.in

John T. C. Hu

Hot Section Technology,
Pratt & Whitney Canada,
Mississauga, ON L5T 1J3, Canada
e-mail: John.Hu@pwc.ca

S. K. Puri

R&D Centre,
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.,
Faridabad 121007, India
e-mail: purisk@indianoil.in

A. K. Jain

R&D,
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited,
Navi Mumbai 400705, India
e-mail: akjain@hpcl.co.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received October 29, 2014; final manuscript received December 3, 2014; published online January 28, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(8), 081503 (Aug 01, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1595; doi: 10.1115/1.4029426 History: Received October 29, 2014; Revised December 03, 2014; Online January 28, 2015

The atomization characteristics of blends of bioderived camelina hydrogenated renewable jet (HRJ) alternative fuel with conventional aviation kerosene (Jet A-1) discharging into ambient atmospheric air from a dual-orifice atomizer used in aircraft engines are described. The spray tests are conducted in a spray test facility at six different test flow conditions to compare the atomization of alternative fuels with that of Jet A-1. The fuel sprays are characterized in terms of fuel discharge, spray cone angle, drop size distribution, and spray patternation. The measurements of spray drop size distribution are obtained using laser diffraction based Spraytec equipment. The characteristics of fuel discharge and cone angle of alternative fuel sprays do not show any changes from that of Jet A-1 sprays. The characteristics of spray drop size, evaluated in terms of the variation of mean drop size along the spray axis, for the alternative fuel sprays remain unaffected by the variation in fuel properties between the alternative fuels and Jet A-1. The measurements on spray patternation, obtained using a mechanical patternator at a distance 5.1 cm from the atomizer exit, show an enhanced fuel concentration in the vicinity of spray axis region for the alternative fuel sprays discharging from the dual-orifice atomizer.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) A schematic sketch of the spray test facility, (b) a schematic of a dual-orifice atomizer, and (c) a schematic sketch illustrating collection cells of the mechanical patternator

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Fig. 2

Individual Jet A-1 fuel sprays from (a) primary and (b) secondary atomizers with m = 1.73 g/s

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Fig. 3

Jet A-1 fuel sprays discharging from the dual-orifice atomizer at different test conditions listed in Table 2

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Fig. 4

Flow number versus the injection pressure drop for the (a) primary and (b) secondary atomizers with the different test fuels. ▪ Jet A-1, ○ 20/80 camelina HRJ/JetA-1, Δ 50/50 camelina HRJ/JetA-1, and ∇ 90/10 camelina HRJ/Van-SOL 53.

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Fig. 5

The variation of spray cone angle with ΔP for test fuel sprays discharging from the (a) primary and (b) secondary atomizers of the dual-orifice atomizer without the presence of surrounding airflow. ▪ Jet A-1, ○ 20/80 camelina HRJ/JetA-1, Δ 50/50 camelina HRJ/JetA-1, and ∇ 90/10 camelina HRJ/Van-SOL 53.

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Fig. 6

Effect of test fuels on spray cone angle for fuel sprays discharging from the dual-orifice atomizer at different test conditions

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Fig. 7

SMD for Jet A-1 fuel spray discharging from the dual-orifice atomizer at different test conditions

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Fig. 8

Effect of test fuel on the variation of SMD with z for sprays discharging from the dual-orifice atomizer at test conditions (a) T6, (b) T5, (c) T4, (d) T3, (e) T2, and (f) T1. ▪ Jet A-1, ○ 20/80 camelina HRJ/JetA-1, Δ 50/50 camelina HRJ/JetA-1, and ∇ 90/10 camelina HRJ/Van-SOL 53.

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Fig. 9

The variation of SMD with z along with error bars for 50/50 camelina HRJ/Jet A-1 sprays discharging from the dual-orifice atomizer at different test conditions

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Fig. 10

The variation of SMD with z obtained by combining the measurements of all test fuels given in Fig. 8 for a given test condition into a single measurement

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Fig. 11

Contour plots of spray patternation at z = 5.1 cm from the atomizer exit for different stages of spray formation with Jet A-1 as the test fuel in the dual-orifice atomizer. Test condition: T6. (a) Primary spray alone, (b) secondary spray alone, (c) combined (primary plus secondary) spray without the surrounding air flow, and (d) combined (primary plus secondary) spray with the surrounding air flow.

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Fig. 12

Spray patternation plots at z = 5.1 cm from the atomizer exit for Jet A-1 fuel sprays discharging from the dual-orifice atomizer at different test conditions. (a) T2, (b) T4, and (c) T6.

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Fig. 13

Effect of test fuels on spray patternation at z = 5.1 cm from the atomizer exit for fuel sprays discharging from the dual-orifice atomizer with the test condition T5. (a) Jet A-1, (b) 20/80 camelina HRJ/JetA-1, (c) 50/50 camelina HRJ/JetA-1, and (d) 90/10 camelina HRJ/Van-SOL 53.

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Fig. 14

Effect of test fuels on the spray mass flux in the central spray region

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