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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Study of Time-Resolved Vortex Structure of In-Cylinder Engine Flow Fields Using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Technique

[+] Author and Article Information
Hanyang Zhuang

University of Michigan – Shanghai Jiao Tong
University Joint Institute,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Rd.,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: zhuanghany11@sjtu.edu.cn

David L.S. Hung

Mem. ASME
University of Michigan – Shanghai Jiao Tong
University Joint Institute,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Rd.,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: dhung@sjtu.edu.cn

Hao Chen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Michigan,
2026 W. E. Lay Automotive Laboratory,
1231 Beal Avenue,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2133
e-mail: haochen@umich.edu

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received December 8, 2014; final manuscript received January 7, 2015; published online February 10, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(8), 082604 (Aug 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1657; doi: 10.1115/1.4029600 History: Received December 08, 2014; Revised January 07, 2015; Online February 10, 2015

The structure of in-cylinder flow field makes significant impacts on the processes of fuel injection, air–fuel interactions, and flame development in internal combustion engines. In this study, the implementation of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) in an optical engine is presented. Flow field PIV images at different crank angles have been taken using a high-speed double-pulsed laser and a high-speed camera with seeding particles mixed with the intake air. This study is focused on measuring the flow fields on the swirl plane at 30 mm below the injector tip under various intake air swirl ratios. A simple algorithm is developed to identify the vortex structure and to track the location and motion of vortex center at different crank angles. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been used to extract the ensemble and variation information of the vortex structure. Experimental results reveal that strong cycle-to-cycle variations exist in almost all test conditions. The vortex center is difficult to identify since multiple, but small scale, vortices exist during the early stage of the intake stroke. However, during the compression stroke when only one vortex center exists in most cycles, the motion of vortex center is found to be quite similar at different intake swirl ratios and engine speeds. This is due to the dominant driving force exerted by the piston’s upward motion on the in-cylinder air.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Optical liner and pent-roof window; (b) cylinder head and valve arrangement (dotted circle shows the visible area); and (c) quartz optical piston

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup

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Fig. 3

Schematic of cylinder head with the same orientation of the following PIV images

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Fig. 4

Four-element neighbor and sign convention for vorticity calculation

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Fig. 5

In-cylinder flow fields of two individual cycles and ensemble average at various crank angles ATDC

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Fig. 6

Vortex center location (white circle) evolution of POD mode 1 from −300 CAD ATDC to −70 CAD ATDC. (The vortex center is out of visible area at −60 CAD ATDC.)

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Fig. 7

Vortex core structures of first three POD modes at various crank angles. Dashed circle indicates the visible area of the optical piston. The unexpected dots at the edge are due to the noise from the image processing.

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Fig. 8

Energy fraction captured by first three POD modes at different crank angles

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