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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Investigation on Spray and Flame Lift-Off Length of Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol–Diesel Blend in a Constant Volume Chamber

[+] Author and Article Information
Han Wu

School of Automobile,
Chang'an University,
Middle Section of Nanerhuan Road,
Xi'an 710064, China
Department of Mechanical Science
and Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
1206 W. Green Street,
Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: whanzi@163.com

Chunhua Zhang

School of Automobile,
Chang'an University,
Middle Section of Nanerhuan Road,
Xi'an 710064, China
e-mail: zchzzz@126.com

Boqi Li

Department of Mechanical Science
and Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
1206 W. Green Street,
Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: boqili2@illinois.edu

Timothy H. Lee

Department of Mechanical Science
and Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
1206 W. Green Street,
Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: Lee527@illinois.edu

Chia-fon F. Lee

Department of Mechanical Science
and Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
1206 W. Green Street,
Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: cflee@illinois.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 23, 2014; final manuscript received December 30, 2014; published online February 18, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(9), 091501 (Sep 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1634; doi: 10.1115/1.4029676 History: Received November 23, 2014; Revised December 30, 2014; Online February 18, 2015

Acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE), as the intermediate product during producing biobutanol by fermentation, is considered as a promising alternative fuel due to its advanced properties and lower recovery cost. The spray and combustion process of ABE20 (20% ABE and 80% diesel) and pure diesel was investigated in a constant volume chamber. The tested ambient environments were set at different temperatures (1100 K, 900 K, and 700 K) and oxygen contents (21%, 16%, and 11%) to cover conventional combustion and low temperature combustion (LTC) conditions of diesel engines. The results show that with the addition of 20% ABE, blends exhibit an improved spray characteristics, shorter and narrower spray due to the low viscosity and high volatility of ABE components, and the spray performance impacted much less by environmental condition than that of neat diesel. In addition to the shorter spray penetration, ABE20 also exhibits a much longer flame lift-off length (FLoL) than that of neat diesel, which forms a much bigger gap from spray tip to flame area for ABE20 that will effectively reduce equivalence ratio of combustion region. As a result, the natural flame luminosity which represents the soot emission level of ABE20 is significantly lower than that of pure diesel (D100) at all tested conditions.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup

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Fig. 2

Mie scattering images of the spray (a) 1100 K/Oxy 21%, (b) 700 K/Oxy 21%, (c) Oxy 21%/900 K, and (d) Oxy 11%/900 K

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Fig. 3

Liquid penetration of the spray (a) ambient oxygen concentration 21%, (b) ambient oxygen concentration 16%, and (c) ambient oxygen concentration 11%

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Fig. 4

Combustion pressure and heat release rate (a) ambient oxygen concentration 21%, (b) ambient oxygen concentration 16%, and (c) ambient oxygen concentration 11%

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Fig. 5

Combustion duration: (a) 1100 K and (b) 900 K

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Fig. 6

Flame lift-off length: (a) 1100 K and (b) 900 K

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Fig. 7

Natural flame images and SINL at 900 K/Oxy21%

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Fig. 8

Time integrated natural luminosity (TINL)

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Fig. 9

FLoL and liquid penetration at ambient oxygen concentration of 21% (a) FLoL and (b) liquid penetration

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