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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Investigation of Hydrogen Enriched Natural Gas Flames in a SGT-700/800 Burner Using OH PLIF and Chemiluminescence Imaging

[+] Author and Article Information
Andreas Lantz

Combustion Physics,
Lund University,
P.O. Box 118,
Lund SE-221 00, Sweden
e-mail: andreas.lantz@forbrf.lth.se

Robert Collin

Combustion Physics,
Lund University,
P.O. Box 118,
Lund SE-221 00, Sweden
e-mail: robert.collin@forbrf.lth.se

Marcus Aldén

Combustion Physics,
Lund University,
P.O. Box 118,
Lund SE-221 00, Sweden
e-mail: marcus.alden@forbrf.lth.se

Annika Lindholm

Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB,
Finspong SE-612 83, Sweden
e-mail: annika.lindholm@siemens.com

Jenny Larfeldt

Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB,
Finspong SE-612 83, Sweden
e-mail: jenny.larfeldt@siemens.com

Daniel Lörstad

Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB,
Finspong SE-612 83, Sweden
e-mail: daniel.lorstad@siemens.com

1Present address: Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspong SE-612 83, Sweden; e-mail: andreas.lantz@siemens.com.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 12, 2014; final manuscript received August 2, 2014; published online October 7, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(3), 031505 (Oct 07, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1379; doi: 10.1115/1.4028462 History: Received July 12, 2014; Revised August 02, 2014

The effect of hydrogen enrichment to natural gas flames was experimentally investigated at atmospheric pressure conditions using flame chemiluminescence imaging, planar laser-induced fluorescence of hydroxyl radicals (OH PLIF), and dynamic pressure monitoring. The experiments were performed using a third generation dry low emission (DLE) burner used in both SGT-700 and SGT-800 industrial gas turbines from Siemens. The burner was mounted in an atmospheric combustion test rig at Siemens with optical access in the flame region. Four different hydrogen enriched natural gas flames were investigated; 0 vol. %, 30 vol. %, 60 vol. %, and 80 vol. % of hydrogen. The results from flame chemiluminescence imaging and OH PLIF show that the size and shape of the flame was clearly affected by hydrogen addition. The flame becomes shorter and narrower when the amount of hydrogen is increased. For the 60 vol. % and 80 vol. % hydrogen flames the flame has moved upstream and the central recirculation zone that anchors the flame has moved upstream the burner exit. Furthermore, the position of the flame front fluctuated more for the full premixed flame with only natural gas as fuel than for the hydrogen enriched flames. Measurements of pressure drop over the burner show an increase with increased hydrogen in the natural gas despite same air flow thus confirming the observation that the flame front moves upstream toward the burner exit and thereby increasing the blockage of the exit. Dynamic pressure measurements in the combustion chamber wall confirms that small amounts of hydrogen in natural gas changes the amplitude of the dynamic pressure fluctuations and initially dampens the axial mode but at higher levels of hydrogen an enhancement of a transversal mode in the combustion chamber at higher frequencies could occur.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the DLE burner showing its main parts

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Fig. 2

Drawing and outline of flows for the atmospheric combustion test rig where the quartz window in blue shows the area for optical access

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Fig. 3

Layout of the setup used in the OH PLIF measurements

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Fig. 4

Examples of typical hydrogen enriched natural gas flames in the combustion test rig: (a) 0 vol. % H2, (b) 30 vol. % H2, (c) 60 vol. % H2, and (d) 100 vol. % H2 [22]

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Fig. 5

Time-averaged flame chemiluminescence images for (a) flame F1, (b) flame F2, (c) flame F3, and (d) flame F4

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Fig. 6

Three-point Abel-deconvoluted flame chemiluminescence images for (a) flame F3 and (b) flame F4

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Fig. 7

Single-shot images of the OH PLIF signal distribution for (a) flame F1 and (b) flame F4

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Fig. 8

(a) OH PLIF signal gradients of the single-shot shown in Fig. 7(a). (b) OH PLIF signal gradients of the single-shot shown in Fig. 7(b). (c) Probability density map of the flame front location of flame F1. (d) Probability density map of the flame front location of flame F4. The probability in flame F1 is multiplied by a factor of 3 in order to use the same color scale as for flame F4.

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Fig. 9

Time-averaged OH PLIF signal distribution for (a) flame F1, (b) flame F2, (c) flame F3, and (d) flame F4. The intensities are multiplied with an individual factor (shown in the lower right corner) in order to use the same color scale.

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Fig. 10

Normalized dynamic pressure and FFT-analyses from the flames for flame F1 (upper left), flame F2 (upper right), flame F3 (lower left), and flame F4 (lower right)

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Fig. 11

Relative change in NOx and pressure drop over one specific DLE burner due to increased hydrogen content in natural gas

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