0
Review Article

Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems: From the Concept to Current Technology, Applications, and an Outlook to the Future

[+] Author and Article Information
Piero Colonna

Propulsion and Power,
Delft University of Technology,
Delft 2629 HS, The Netherlands
e-mail: P.Colonna@TUDelft.nl

Emiliano Casati, Carsten Trapp, Tiemo Mathijssen

Propulsion and Power,
Delft University of Technology,
Delft 2629 HS, The Netherlands

Jaakko Larjola, Teemu Turunen-Saaresti, Antti Uusitalo

Laboratory of Fluid Dynamics,
Institute of Energy Technology,
Lappeenranta University of Technology,
P.O. Box 20,
Lappeenranta 53851, Finland

External with respect to the power system, as opposed to the internal combustion of reciprocating engines or gas turbines.

Carbon dioxide is an organic compound, as it contains carbon, therefore systems based on supercritical CO2 thermodynamic cycles entailing working fluid condensation, as it is the case in some proposed configurations, qualify as supercritical organic Rankine cycle systems.

The prize was awarded by the Libyan governatorate of Italy and the National Association of Combustion Control. Such solar ORC plant would have been used to pump water in the arid areas of North Africa.

June 2013, personal communication.

The data for the U.S. industry summarize waste heat from selected process exhaust gases: iron/steel ovens and furnaces, industrial steam boilers, cement kilns, ethylene furnaces, glass furnaces, aluminum furnaces, and metal casting. The temperature ranges for the U.S. data are defined as <230 °C (low), 230–650 °C (medium), and >650 °C (high). The data for Japan comprise waste heat from the following industry: food, paper, petroleum, ferrous and nonferrous, mechanics, transportation, electricity, fiber, chemical, ceramics, household appliance, gas, and others. The data for the UK account for 73 unique industrial sites from eight sectors: iron and steel, refineries, chemicals, cement, food and drinks, pulp and paper, glass, and ceramics.

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the ORC Power Systems Committee of the ASME International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received December 8, 2014; final manuscript received February 9, 2015; published online March 31, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(10), 100801 (Oct 01, 2015) (19 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1658; doi: 10.1115/1.4029884 History: Received December 08, 2014; Revised February 09, 2015; Online March 31, 2015

The cumulative global capacity of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems for the conversion of renewable and waste thermal energy is undergoing a rapid growth and is estimated to be approx. 2000 MWe considering only installations that went into operation after 1995. The potential for the conversion of the thermal power coming from liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs, waste heat from primary engines or industrial processes, biomass combustion, and concentrated solar radiation into electricity is arguably enormous. ORC technology is possibly the most flexible in terms of capacity and temperature level and is currently often the only applicable technology for the conversion of external thermal energy sources. In addition, ORC power systems are suitable for the cogeneration of heating and/or cooling, another advantage in the framework of distributed power generation. Related research and development is therefore very lively. These considerations motivated the effort documented in this article, aimed at providing consistent information about the evolution, state, and future of this power conversion technology. First, basic theoretical elements on the thermodynamic cycle, working fluid, and design aspects are illustrated, together with an evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages in comparison to competing technologies. An overview of the long history of the development of ORC power systems follows, in order to place the more recent evolution into perspective. Then, a compendium of the many aspects of the state of the art is illustrated: the solutions currently adopted in commercial plants and the main-stream applications, including information about exemplary installations. A classification and terminology for ORC power plants are proposed. An outlook on the many research and development activities is provided, whereby information on new high-impact applications, such as automotive heat recovery is included. Possible directions of future developments are highlighted, ranging from efforts targeting volume-produced stationary and mobile mini-ORC systems with a power output of few kWe, up to large MWe base-load ORC plants.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Tabor, H., and Bronicki, L., 1964, “Establishing Criteria for Fluids for Small Vapor Turbines,” SAE Technical Paper No. 640823. [CrossRef]
Angelino, G., Gaia, M., and Macchi, E., 1984, “A Review of Italian Activity in the Field of Organic Rankine Cycles,” International VDI ORC HP Technology Working Fluids Problems, Zurich, Sept. 10–12, pp. 465–482.
Adam, A. W., 1995, “Organic Rankine Engines,” Encyclopedia of Energy Technology and the Environment, Wiley, New York, pp. 2157–2161.
Macchi, E., 1977, “Design Criteria for Turbines Operating With Fluids Having a Low Speed of Sound,” Closed Cycle Gas Turbines (VKI Lecture Series 100), von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genèse, Belgium.
Verneau, A., 1987, “Supersonic Turbines for Organic Fluid Rankine Cycles From 3 to 1300 kW,” Small High Pressure Ratio Turbines (VKI Lecture Series 1987–2007), von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genèse, Belgium.
Quoilin, S., Broek, M. V. D., Declaye, S., Dewallef, P., and Lemort, V., 2013, “Techno-Economic Survey of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Systems,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 22, pp. 168–186. [CrossRef]
Invernizzi, C. M., 2013, Closed Power Cycles—Thermodynamic Fundamentals and Applications (Lecture Notes in Engineering, Vol. 11), Springer-Verlag, London.
Di Nanno, L., Di Bella, F., and Koplow, M., 1983, “An RC-1 Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle for an Adiabatic Diesel Engine,” NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Technical Report No. DOE/NASA/0302-1.
Fergason, S., Guardone, A., and Argrow, B., 2003, “Construction and Validation of a Dense Gas Shock Tube,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 17(3), pp. 326–333. [CrossRef]
Bombarda, P., Invernizzi, C., and Gaia, M., 2013, “Performance Analysis of OTEC Plants With Multilevel Organic Rankine Cycle and Solar Hybridization,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(4), p. 042302. [CrossRef]
Gaia, M., 2011, “30 Years of ORC Development,” 1st International Seminar on ORC Power Systems (ORC2011), Delft, The Netherlands, Sept. 22–23. http://orc2011.fyper.com/uploads/File/presentations3/30%20Years%20of%20ORC%20development.pdf
Kalina, I. A., 1984, “Combined Cycle System With Novel Bottoming Cycle,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 106(4), pp. 737–742. [CrossRef]
Bombarda, P., Invernizzi, C., and Pietra, C., 2010, “Heat Recovery From Diesel Engines: A Thermodynamic Comparison Between Kalina and ORC Cycles,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 30(2–3), pp. 212–219. [CrossRef]
Stone, K., Leingang, E., Liden, B., Ellis, E., Sattar, T., Mancini, T., and Nelving, H., 2001, “SES/Boeing Dish Stirling System Operation,” ASME International Solar Energy Conference, Washington, DC, Apr. 21–25, pp. 105–110.
Reinalter, W., Ulmer, S., Heller, P., Rauch, T., Gineste, J. M., Ferriere, A., and Nepveu, F., 2007, “Detailed Performance Analysis of a 10 kW Dish Stirling System,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 130(1), p. 011013. [CrossRef]
Carlsen, H., and Fentz, J., 2004, “Development of a 9 kW Stirling Engine,” Proceedings of the International Gas Research Conference (IGRC), Vancouver, Canada, Nov. 1–4.
Conroy, G., Duffy, A., and Ayompe, L., 2013, “Validated Dynamic Energy Model for a Stirling Engine μ-CHP Unit Using Field Trial Data From a Domestic Dwelling,” Energy Build., 62, pp. 18–26. [CrossRef]
Angelino, G., and Invernizzi, C., 2000, “Real Gas Effects in Stirling Engines,” 35th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference & Exhibit (IECEC), Las Vegas, NV, July 24–28, pp. 69–75.
Power Magazine, 2008, “Global Monitor: Sandia, Stirling Energy Systems Set New World Record,” Power, 152(4), available at: http://www.powermag.com/global-monitor-april-2008/?pagenum=2
Angelino, G., 1968, “Carbon Dioxide Condensation Cycles for Power Production,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 90(3), pp. 287–295. [CrossRef]
Dostal, V., Hejzlar, P., and Driscoll, M. J., 2006, “High-Performance Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycle for Next-Generation Nuclear Reactors,” Nucl. Technol., 154(3), pp. 265–282. http://www.ans.org/pubs/journals/nt/a_3733
Iverson, B., Conboy, T., Pasch, J., and Kruizenga, A., 2013, “Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycles for Solar-Thermal Energy,” Appl. Energy, 111, pp. 957–970. [CrossRef]
Bram, S., De Ruyck, J., and Novak-Zdravkovic, A., 2005, “Status of External Firing of Biomass in Gas Turbines,” Proc. IMechE Part A, 219(2), pp. 137–145. [CrossRef]
Heller, P., Pfänder, M., Denk, T., Tellez, F., Valverde, A., Fernandez, J., and Ring, A., 2006, “Test and Evaluation of a Solar Powered Gas Turbine System,” Sol. Energy, 80(10), pp. 1225–1230. [CrossRef]
Pehnt, M., Praetorius, B., Schumacher, K., Fischer, C., Schneider, L., Cames, M., and Voß, J.-P., 2006, Micro Cogeneration: Towards Decentralized Energy Systems, Springer, Berlin.
Galloway, E., and Hebert, L., 1836, History and Progress of the Steam Engine, With a Practical Investigation of Its Structure and Application, T. Kelly, London.
Ofeldt, F. W., 1898, “Engine,” U.S. Patent No. US611792 A.
Towne, P., 1991, “The Naphta Engine,” Gas Engine Magazine, accessed Mar. 2, 2015, available at: www.gasenginemagazine.com/engines-a-z/the-naphtha-engine.aspx
Shuman, F., and The Sun Power Co., 1907, “The Direct Acting Solar Engine—The Prime Mover of the Immediate Future,” Review Publishing & Printing Company, Philadelphia.
Durant, K., 1976, The Naphtha Launch (Monographs), Adirondack Museum, Blue Mountain Lake, NY.
Tissandier, G., and de Parville, H., 1888, “Moteurs a Vapeurs Volatiles,” La Nat., 790, pp. 113–114.
EscherWyss, 1912, Motorboote und Motoryachten, Escher Wyss A.G., Zurich, reprinted by Brian Hillsdon and Jim White in 1982.
NY Times, 1904, “Naphta Launch Ablaze, Menaces Yachts at the Rendezvous of the New York Yacht Club,” The New York Times, available at: http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9C06EFDC1230E132A25755C2A9619C946597D6CF
Pytilinski, J., 1978, “Solar Energy Installations for Pumping Irrigation Water,” Sol. Energy, 21(4), pp. 255–262. [CrossRef]
Spencer, L., 1989, “A Comprehensive Review of Small Solar-Powered Heat Engines: Part I. A History of Solar–Powered Devices Up to 1950,” Sol. Energy, 43(4), pp. 191–196. [CrossRef]
D'Amelio, L., 1935, Impiego di Vapori ad alto Peso Molecolare in Piccole Turbine e Utilizzazione del Calore Solare Per Energia Motrice, Industria Napoletana Arti Grafiche, Naples, Italy.
D'Amelio, L., 1936, “La Turbina a Vapore ed i cicli Binari con Fluidi Diversi Dall'acqua Fra le Isoterme Inferiori,” L'Elettrotecnica, XXIII(9), pp. 250–257.
D'Amelio, L., 1936, “La Turbina a Vapore ed i cicli Binari con Fluidi Diversi Dall'acqua Fra le Isoterme Inferiori,” L'Elettrotecnica, XXIII(10), pp. 286–292.
D'Amelio, L., 1939, “Le Acque Termali Come Fonti di Energia,” I combustibili nazionali ed il loro impiego, Reale Accademia Delle Scienze di Torino, Turin, Italy, pp. 293–307.
Dornig, M., 1959, Trattato Generale Delle Macchine Termiche ed Idrauliche: Macchine a Vapore, Libreria editrice politecnica C. Tamburini, Milan, Italy, p. 246.
D'Amelio, L., 1958, “A Steam Engine Using a Mixture of Vapours From Non-Miscible Fluids as a Solar Engine With Flat Plate Collectors,” International Conference on the Use of Solar Energy, Tucson, AZ, Oct. 31–Nov. 1, E. F. Carpenter, ed., Arizona Unversity Press, Tucson, AZ.
D'Amelio, L., 1963, “Thermal Machines for the Conversion of Solar Energy Into Mechanical Power,” Sol. Energy, 7(2), p. 82. [CrossRef]
DiPippo, R., 2012, Geothermal Power Plants, 3rd ed., Butterworth–Heinemann, Boston, Chap. 8.
Povarov, O., Saakyan, V., Nikolski, A., Luzin, V., Tomarov, G., and Sapozhnikov, M., 2003, “Experience of Creation and Operation of Geothermal Power Plants at Mutnovsky Geothermal Field, Kamchatka, Russia,” International Geothermal Conference, Reykjavík, Iceland, Sept. 14–17, Paper No. S01-052.
Tomarov, G. V., Nikolsky, A. A., Semenov, V. N., and Shipkov, A. A., 2010, “Recent Geothermal Power Projects in Russia,” World Geothermal Congress, Bali, Indonesia, Apr. 25–29.
Tabor, H., and Bronicki, L., 1963, “Small Turbine for Solar Energy Power Package,” Sol. Energy, 7(2), p. 82. [CrossRef]
Ray, S. K., and Moss, G., 1966, “Fluorochemicals as Working Fluids for Small Rankine Cycle Power Units,” Adv. Energy Convers., 6(2), pp. 89–102. [CrossRef]
Spencer, L., 1989, “A Comprehensive Review of Small Solar-Powered Heat Engines: Part II. Research Since 1950—‘Conventional Engines’ Up to 100 kW,” Sol. Energy, 43(4), pp. 197–210. [CrossRef]
Bronicki, L., 1972, “The Ormat Rankine Power Unit,” 7th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), San Diego, CA, Sept. 25–29, pp. 327–334.
World Oil, 1972, “Turbo-Generator Provides, 2,000 Watts Remote Power,” World Oil, 175(7), pp. 67–69.
Bronicki, L., 1968, “Ten Years of Research, Development and Operation of Rankine Cycle Power Units in Israel,” International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Boulder, CO, Aug. 13–17.
Einav, A., 2004, “Solar Energy Research and Development Achievements in Israel and Their Practical Significance,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 126(3), pp. 921–928. [CrossRef]
Bronicki, L. Y., 2007, “Organic Rankine Cycles in Geothermal Power Plants: 25 Years of Ormat Experience,” GRC Trans., 31, pp. 499–502. https://www.geothermal-library.org/index.php?mode=pubs&action=view&record=1025267
Larjola, J., 1988, “ORC Power Plant Based on High Speed Technology,” Conference on High Speed Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland, Aug. 21–24, Paper No. ENTE D-15, pp. 63–77.
Platell, O. B., 1976, “Progress of Saab Scania's Steam Power Project,” SAE Technical Paper No. 760344. [CrossRef]
Luchter, S., and Renner, R., 1977, “Assessment of the Technology of Rankine Engines for Automobiles,” U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC, Technical Report No. ERDA-77-54.
Di Bella, F. A., Di Nanno, L. R., and Koplow, M. D., 1983, “Laboratory and On-Highway Testing of Diesel Organic Rankine Compound Long-Haul Vehicle Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 830122. [CrossRef]
Werner, D., and Barber, R., 1973, “Working Fluid Selection for a Small Rankine Cycle Total Energy System for Recreation Vehicles,” 8th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Philadelphia, Aug. 13–17, pp. 146–151.
Barber, R., 1974, “Potential of Rankine Engines to Produce Power From Waste Heat Streams,” 9th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Francisco, CA, Aug. 26–30, pp. 508–514.
Prigmore, D., and Barber, R., 1975, “Cooling With the Sun's Heat Design Considerations and Test Data for a Rankine Cycle Prototype,” Sol. Energy, 17(3), pp. 185–192. [CrossRef]
Abbin, J., 1978, “Solar Total Energy Test Facility Project Test Summary Report: Rankine Cycle Energy Conversion Subsystem,” Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, Technical Report No. SAND-78-0396.
Barber, R., and Batton, W., 1988, “Development of a 25 kW Solar Electric-Power-Generation Unit,” 10th ASME Solar Energy Conference, Denver, CO, Apr. 10–14, pp. 237–243.
Jaffe, L. D., 1988, “Review of Test Results on Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Modules With Dish-Mounted Rankine Engines and for Production of Process Steam,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 110(4), pp. 275–281. [CrossRef]
Prasad, A., 1980, “Field Testing of a 600 kW Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Recovery System: Results to Date,” Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, Feb. 3–7, Vol. 1, pp. 482–494.
Boretz, J. E., 1986, “Supercritical Organic Rankine Engines (SCORE),” 21st Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC'86), San Diego, CA, Aug. 25–29, Vol. 3, pp. 2050–2054.
Angelino, G., and Invernizzi, C., 1993, “Cyclic Methylsiloxanes as Working Fluids for Space Power Cycles,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 115(3), pp. 130–137. [CrossRef]
Bado, G., Tomei, G., Angelino, G., Gaia, M., and Macchi, E., 1979, “The Ansaldo 35 kW Solar Power System,” Sun II, Proceedings of the Silver Jubilee Congress, Atlanta, GA, May 28–June 1, Vol. 2, pp. 1090–1094.
Angelino, G., Gaia, M., Macchi, E., Barutti, A., Maccio, C., and Tomei, G., 1982, “Test Results of a Medium Temperature Solar Engine,” Int. J. Ambient Energy, 3(3), pp. 115–126. [CrossRef]
Barutti, A., Pedrick, W., Angelino, G., Gaia, M., and Macchi, E., 1984, “Ansaldo Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Plants Located at Ballajura, Western Australia,” 8th Solar World Congress, Biennial Congress of the International Solar Energy Society, Perth, Australia, Aug. 14–19, 1983, Vol. 3, pp. 1572–1576.
Gaia, M., Angelino, G., Macchi, E., DeHerring, D., and Fabry, J., 1984, “Experimental Results of the ORC Engine Developed for the Borj Cedria Solar Plant,” 8th Solar World Congress, Biennial Congress of the International Solar Energy Society, Perth, Australia, Aug. 14–19, 1983, Vol. 3, pp. 1460–1464.
Angelino, G., Invernizzi, C., and Macchi, E., 1991, Organic Working Fluid Optimization for Space Power Cycles, Springer, New York, Chap. 16.
Jokinen, T., Larjola, J., and Mikhaltsev, I., 1998, “Power Unit for Research Submersible,” International Conference on Electric Ship (ElecShip 98), Istanbul, Sept. 1, pp. 114–118.
Bronicki, L., 1988, “Experience With High Speed Organic Rankine Cycle Turbomachinery,” Conference on High Speed Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenrata, Finland, Aug. 21–24, pp. 44–61.
Larjola, J., 1984, “ORC-Plant With High-Speed Gas Lubricated Turbogenerator,” International VDI Seminar, VDI Verlag, Zurich, Sept. 10–12, Vol. 539, pp. 697–705.
van Buijtenen, J., Larjola, J., Turunen-Saaresti, T., Honkatukia, J., Esa, H., Backman, J., and Reunanen, A., 2003, “Design and Validation of a New High Expansion Ratio Radial Turbine for ORC Application,” 5th European Conference on Turbomachinery, Prague, Mar. 18–21.
Curran, H., 1981, “Use of Organic Working Fluids in Rankine Engines,” J. Energy, 5(4), pp. 218–223. [CrossRef]
Atlas Copco, 2014, “Expanders EG, EGi, EEGi-Series,” Atlas Copco Gas and Process, Cologne, Germany, accessed Nov. 1, 2014, www.atlascopco-gap.com/products/expanders/eg-egi-eegi-series
Exergy, 2014, Exergy S.p.A., Bologna, Italy, http://exergy-orc.com
Spadacini, C., Centemeri, L., Xodo, L. G., Astolfi, M., Romano, M. C., and Macchi, E., 2011, “A New Configuration for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems,” 1st International Seminar on ORC Power System (ORC2011), Delft, The Netherlands, Sept. 22–23 http://orc2011.fyper.com/uploads/File/presentations1/A%20new%20configurations%20for%20ORC%20power%20systems.pdf.
Spadacini, C., Rizzi, D., Saccilotto, C., Salgarollo, S., and Centemeri, L., 2013, “The Radial Outflow Turbine Technology,” 2nd International Seminar on ORC Power System (ORC2013), Rotterdam, Oct. 7–8. http://www.asme-orc2013.nl/uploads/File/PPT%20139.pdf
Hawkins, L., Lei, Z., Blumber, E., Mirmobin, P., and Erdlac, R., 2012, “Heat-to-Electricity With High-Speed Magnetic Bearing/Generator System,” Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting, Reno, NV, Sept. 30–Oct. 3, Vol. 36, pp. 1073–1078.
GE Oil & Gas, 2014, “ORegen,” accessed Nov. 1, 2014, www.ge-energy.com/products_and_services/services/oil_and_gas_services/oregen.jsp
Del Turco, P., Asti, A., Del Greco, A., Bacci, A., Landi, G., and Seghi, G., 2011, “The ORegen Waste Heat Recovery Cycle: Reducing the CO2 Footprint by Means of Overall Cycle Efficiency Improvement,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-45051. [CrossRef]
Burrato, A., 2013, “ORegenTM Waste Heat Recovery: Development and Applications,” 2nd International Seminar on ORC Power Systems (ORC2013), Rotterdam, Oct. 7–8. http://www.asme-orc2013.nl/uploads/File/PPT%20098.pdf
Ormat, 2014, “Green Energy You Can Rely On,” Ormat Technologies Inc., www.ormat.com
Bronicki, L., 2013, “Short Review of the Long History of ORC Power Systems,” 2nd International Seminar on ORC Power Systems (ORC2013), Rotterdam, Oct. 7–8. http://www.asme-orc2013.nl/uploads/File/ORC%202013%20-%20Keynote%20lecture%20Dr.%20Bronicki.pdf
Bronicki, L., 2013, Personal communication.
Canada, S., Brosseau, D., and Price, H., 2006, “Design and Construction of the APS 1-MWE Parabolic Trough Power Plant,” ASME Paper No. 2006-99139. [CrossRef]
Triogen, 2014, “Triogen: Power From Heat,” Triogen B.V., Goor, The Netherlands, www.triogen.nl
van Buijtenen, J., Eppinga, Q., and Ganassin, S., 2013, “Development and Operation of a High Temperature High Speed Organic Rankine Cycle System,” 2nd International Seminar on ORC Power Systems (ORC2013), Rotterdam, Oct. 7–8. http://www.asme-orc2013.nl/uploads/File/PPT%20132.pdf
Turboden, 2014, “Turboden: Clean Energy Ahead,” Turboden s.r.l., Brescia, Italy, www.turboden.eu
Bini, R., Duvia, A., Schwarz, A., Gaia, M., Bertuzzi, P., and Righini, W., 2004, “Operational Results of the First Biomass CHP Plant in Italy Based on Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator and Overview of a Number of Plants in Operation in Europe Since 1998,” 2nd World Biomass Conference, Rome, May 10–14, pp. 1716–1721.
Bini, R., and Viscuso, F., 2011, “High Efficiency (25%) ORC for Power-Only Generation Mode in the Range 1–3 MW: An Already Proven Technology Also Available for Partially Cogenerative Applications,” 1st International Seminar on ORC Power Systems (ORC2011), Delft, The Netherlands, Sept. 22–23. http://orc2011.fyper.com/uploads/File/presentations5/High%20efficience%20ORC%20for%20power%20only%20generation%20mode%20in%20range%20-3%20MW.pdf
GMK, 2014, “Clean Energy Efficiency,” Gesellschaft fur Motoren und Kraftanlangen GmbH, Reuterstraße, Germany, accessed Feb. 1, 2014, www.gmk.info
Astolfi, M., Romano, M., Bombarda, P., and Macchi, E., 2014, “Binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycles) Power Plants for the Exploitation of Medium-Low Temperature Geothermal Sources—Part A: Thermodynamic Optimization,” Energy, 66, pp. 423–434. [CrossRef]
Astolfi, M., Romano, M., Bombarda, P., and Macchi, E., 2014, “Binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycles) Power Plants for the Exploitation of Medium-Low Temperature Geothermal Sources—Part B: Techno-Economic Optimization,” Energy, 66, pp. 435–446. [CrossRef]
Pierobon, L., Casati, E., Casella, F., Haglind, F., and Colonna, P., 2014, “Design Methodology for Flexible Energy Conversion Systems Accounting for Dynamic Performance,” Energy, 68, pp. 667–679. [CrossRef]
Astolfi, M., Bini, R., Macchi, E., Paci, M., Pietra, C., Rossi, N., and Tizzanini, A., 2013, “Testing of a New Supercritical ORC Technology for Efficient Power Generation From Geothermal Low Temperature Resources,” ASME ORC2013—2nd International Seminar on ORC Power Systems (ORC2013), Rotterdam, Oct. 7–8. http://www.asme-orc2013.nl/uploads/File/PPT%20166.pdf
Bronicki, L., 2007, “Organic Rankine Cycles in Geothermal Power Plants 25 Years of Ormat Experience,” GRC Trans., 31, pp. 499–502. http://pubs.geothermal-library.org/lib/grc/1025267.pdf
Colonna, P., van der Stelt, T. P., and Guardone, A., 2010, “FluidProp (Version 3.0): A Program for the Estimation of Thermophysical Properties of Fluids,” Asimptote bv, Delft, The Netherlands.
Fröba, A., Kremer, H., Leipertz, A., Flohr, F., and Meurer, C., 2007, “Thermophysical Properties of a Refrigerant Mixture of R365mfc (1,1,1,3,3-Pentafluorobutane) and Galden® HT 55 (Perfluoropolyether),” Int. J. Thermophys., 28(2), pp. 449–480. [CrossRef]
Opcon, 2015, Opcon Energy Systems, Stockholm, http://www.opcon.se/web/oes_en.aspx
Biederman, T., and Brasz, J., 2014, “Geothermal ORC Systems Using Large Screw Expanders,” 22nd International Compressor Engineering Conference, West Lafayette, IN, July 14–17.
Lemort, V., Guillaume, L., Legros, A., Declaye, S., and Quoilin, S., 2013, “A Comparison of Piston, Screw and Scroll Expanders for Small Scale Rankine Cycle Systems,” 3rd International Conference on Microgeneration and Related Technologies, Naples, Italy, April 5–17.
Colonna, P., and Rebay, S., 2004, “Numerical Simulation of Dense Gas Flows on Unstructured Grids With an Implicit High Resolution Upwind Euler Solver,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 46(7), pp. 735–765. [CrossRef]
Colonna, P., Harinck, J., Rebay, S., and Guardone, A., 2008, “Real-Gas Effects in Organic Rankine Cycle Turbine Nozzles,” J. Propul. Power, 24(2), pp. 282–294. [CrossRef]
Harinck, J., Colonna, P., Guardone, A., and Rebay, S., 2010, “Influence of Thermodynamic Models in 2D Flow Simulations of Turboexpanders,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132(1), p. 011001. [CrossRef]
Angelino, G., Ferrari, P., Giglioli, G., and Macchi, E., 1976, “Combined Thermal Engine-Heat Pump Systems for Low-Temperature Heat Generation,” Inst. Mech. Eng. Proc., 190(27), pp. 255–265. [CrossRef]
Song, P., Wei, M., Shi, L., Danish, S., and Ma, C., 2014, “A Review of Scroll Expanders for Organic Rankine Cycle Systems,” Appl. Therm. Eng. (in press).
van Buijtenen, J., 2009, “The Tri-O-Gen Organic Rankine Cycle: Development and Perspectives,” Power Eng.: J. Inst. Diesel Gas Turbine Eng., 13(1), pp. 4–12.
Bini, R., and Manciana, E., 1996, “Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerators for Combined Heat and Power Production From Biomass,” 3rd Munich Discussion Meeting Energy Conversion From Biomass Fuels Current Trends and Future Systems, Munich, Oct. 22–23, Paper No. 96A00412.
Bronicki, L., 2008, “Advanced Power Cycles for Enhancing Geothermal Sustainability, 1000 MW Deployed Worldwide,” Power and Energy Society General Meeting—Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, Pittsburgh, PA, July 20–24. [CrossRef]
Krieger, Z., and Kaplan, U., 2000, “Apparatus and Method for Producing Power Using Geothermal Fluid,” Patent No. 6009711.
Brasz, J., 2011, “Low Temperature/Small Capacity ORC System Development,” 1st International Seminar on ORC Power Systems (ORC2011), Delft, The Netherlands, Sept. 22–23. http://orc2011.fyper.com/uploads/File/Delft%20keynote%20presentation%209.23.11.pdf
Brasz, J., and Holdmann, G., 2005, “Power Production From a Moderate—Temperature Geothermal Resource,” GRC Trans., 29, pp. 729–733. http://pubs.geothermal-library.org/lib/grc/1022679.pdf
Levy, C. E., 2011, “Lessons Learned From Raser Technologies' ‘Revolutionary’ Project,” Breaking Energy, epub, accessed Feb. 1, 2014, www.breakingenergy.com/2011/10/20/lessons-learned-from-raser-technologies-revolutionary-project
Obernberger, I., Thonhofer, P., and Reisenhofer, E., 2002, “Description and Evaluation of the New ORC Process,” Euroheat Power Int., 31(10), pp. 18–25.
Duvia, A., Guercio, A., and Rossi, C., 2009, “Technical and Economic Aspects of Biomass Fuelled CHP Plants Based on ORC Turbogenerators Feeding Existing District Heating Networks,” 17th European Biomass Conference, Hamburg, Germany, June 29–July 3, pp. 2030–2037.
Hedman, B. A., 2009, “Status of Waste Heat to Power Projects on Natural Gas Pipeline,” Interstate Natural Gas Association of America (INGAA), Washington, DC.
Bronicki, L., and Schochet, D., 2005, “Bottoming Organic Cycle for Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68121. [CrossRef]
Bove, R., and Lunghi, P., 2006, “Electric Power Generation From Landfill Gas Using Traditional and Innovative Technologies,” Energy Convers. Manage., 47(11–12), pp. 1391–1401. [CrossRef]
Gewald, D., Siokos, K., Karellas, S., and Spliethoff, H., 2012, “Waste Heat Recovery From a Landfill Gas-Fired Power Plant,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 16(4), pp. 1779–1789. [CrossRef]
Campana, F., Bianchi, M., Branchini, L., De Pascale, A., Peretto, A., Baresi, M., Fermi, A., Rossetti, N., and Vescovo, R., 2013, “ORC Waste Heat Recovery in European Energy Intensive Industries: Energy and GHG Savings,” Energy Convers. Manage., 76, pp. 244–252. [CrossRef]
U.S. DOE Industrial Technology Program, 2008, “Waste Heat Recovery: Technology and Opportunities in U.S. Industry,” U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
Sumitomo, H., Kado, S., Nozaki, T., Fushinobu, K., and Okazaki, K., 2005, “Exergy Enhancement of Low Temperature Waste Heat by Methanol Steam Reforming for Hydrogen Production,” 8th Asian Hydrogen Energy Conference, Beijing, May 26–27, pp. 78–83.
Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), 2014, “The Potential for Recovering and Using Surplus Heat From Industry,” Department of Energy and Climate Change, London.
Vescovo, R., 2009, “ORC Recovering Industrial Heat—Power Generation From Waste Energy Streams,” Cogeneration and On-Site Power Production, PennWell Corp., Tulsa, OK.
Madlool, N., Saidur, R., Hossain, M., and Rahim, N., 2011, “A Critical Review on Energy Use and Savings in the Cement Industries,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 15(4), pp. 2042–2060. [CrossRef]
Engin, T., and Ari, V., 2005, “Energy Auditing and Recovery for Dry Type Cement Rotary Kiln Systems—A Case Study,” Energ. Convers. Manage., 46(4), pp. 551–562 [CrossRef]
Karellas, S., Leontaritis, A.-D., Panousis, G., Bellos, E., and Kakaras, E., 2013, “Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of Waste Heat Recovery Systems in the Cement Industry,” Energy, 58, pp. 147–156. [CrossRef]
Legmann, H., 2002, “Recovery of Industrial Heat in the Cement Industry by Means of the ORC Process,” IEEE-IAS/PCA 44th Cement Industry Technical Conference, Jacksonville, FL, May 5–9, pp. 29–35. [CrossRef]
Born, C., and Granderath, R., 2011, “Analysis of Potential and Specific Problems of Heat Recovery in the EAF,” Steel Times Int., 35(5), pp. 45–48,51.
Bause, T., Campana, F., Filippini, L., Foresti, A., Monti, N., and Pelz, T., 2014, “Cogeneration With ORC at Elbe-Stahlwerke Feralpi EAF Shop,” Proceedings of the AISTech Conference, Indianapolis, IN, May 5–8, pp. 1101–1111.
Tabor, H., 1962, “Use of Solar Energy for Production of Mechanical Power and Electricity by Means of Piston Engines and Turbines,” Sol. Energy, 6(3), pp. 89–93. [CrossRef]
Price, H., and Hassani, V., 2002, “Modular Trough Power Plant Cycle and System Analysis,” U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Technical Report No. NREL/TP-550-31240. [CrossRef]
Prabhu, E., 2006, “Solar Trough Organic Rankine Electricity System (STORES) Stage 1: Power Plant Optimization and Economics,” U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Technical Report No. NREL/SR-550-39433.
Turboden, 2013, “Turboden Solar Thermal Power Applications,” Turboden s.r.l., Brescia, Italy, Apr. 1, 2014, www.turboden.eu/en/public/downloads/12-COM.P-23-rev.6.pdf?
Elsevier, B. V., 2014, “Scopus: Abstract and Citation Database of Peer Reviewed Literature, Scientific Journals, Books, and Conference Proceedings,” accessed Dec. 31, 2014, available at: www.Scopus.com
Saidur, R., Rezaei, M., Muzammil, W., Hassan, M., Paria, S., and Hasanuzzaman, M., 2012, “Technologies to Recover Exhaust Heat From Internal Combustion Engines,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 16(8), pp. 5649–5659. [CrossRef]
Boretti, A. A., 2012, “Transient Operation of Internal Combustion Engines With Rankine Waste Heat Recovery Systems,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 48, pp. 18–23. [CrossRef]
Horst, T., Tegethoff, W., Eilts, P., and Koehler, J., 2014, “Prediction of Dynamic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery Performance and Fuel Saving Potential in Passenger Car Applications Considering Interactions With Vehicles' Energy Management,” Energ. Convers. Manage., 78, pp. 438–451. [CrossRef]
Maraver, D., Royo, J., Lemort, V., and Quoilin, S., 2014, “Systematic Optimization of Subcritical and Transcritical Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) Constrained by Technical Parameters in Multiple Applications,” Appl. Energy, 117, pp. 11–29. [CrossRef]
DiGenova, K., Botros, B., and Brisson, J., 2013, “Method for Customizing an Organic Rankine Cycle to a Complex Heat Source for Efficient Energy Conversion, Demonstrated on a Fischer Tropsch Plant,” Appl. Energy, 102, pp. 746–754. [CrossRef]
Smith, I., and da Silva, R. M., 1994, “Development of the Trilateral Flash Cycle System. Part 2: Increasing Power Output With Working Fluid Mixtures,” Proc. IMechE Part A, 208(2), pp. 135–144. [CrossRef]
Boyle, P., Hays, L., Kaupert, K., and Welch, P., 2013, “Performance of Variable Phase Cycle in Geothermal and Waste Heat Recovery Applications,” GRC Trans., 37, pp. 679–685. http://pubs.geothermal-library.org/lib/grc/1030641.pdf
Ho, T., Mao, S., and Greif, R., 2012, “Comparison of the Organic Flash Cycle (OFC) to Other Advanced Vapor Cycles for Intermediate and High Temperature Waste Heat Reclamation and Solar Thermal Energy,” Energy, 42(1), pp. 213–223. [CrossRef]
Kane, M., Larrain, D., Favrat, D., and Allani, Y., 2003, “Small Hybrid Solar Power System,” Energy, 28(14), pp. 1427–1443. [CrossRef]
Angelino, G., and Colonna, P., 1998, “Multicomponent Working Fluids for Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs),” Energy, 23(6), pp. 449–463. [CrossRef]
Chen, H., Goswami, D., Rahman, M., and Stefanakos, E., 2011, “A Supercritical Rankine Cycle Using Zeotropic Mixture Working Fluids for the Conversion of Low-Grade Heat Into Power,” Energy, 36(1), pp. 549–555. [CrossRef]
Heberle, F., Preißinger, M., and Brüggemann, D., 2012, “Zeotropic Mixtures as Working Fluids in Organic Rankine Cycles for Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources,” Renewable Energy, 37(1), pp. 364–370. [CrossRef]
Trapp, C., and Colonna, P., 2013, “Efficiency Improvement in Precombustion CO2 Removal Units With a Waste-Heat Recovery ORC Power Plant,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(4), p. 042311. [CrossRef]
Lampe, M., Groß, J., and Bardow, A., 2014, “Simultaneous Process and Working Fluid Optimisation for Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) Using PC-SAFT,” Comput. Aided Chem. Eng., 30, pp. 572–576. [CrossRef]
Modelica, 2013, “Modelica—A Unified Object-Oriented Language for Physical Systems Modeling—Language Specification Version 3.2 Revision 2,” Modelica Association, Linköping, Sweden, www.modelica.org
Casella, F., Mathijssen, T., van Buijtenen, J., and Colonna, P., 2013, “Dynamic Modeling of ORC Power Systems,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(4), p. 042310. [CrossRef]
Kadota, M., and Yamamoto, K., 2009, “Advanced Transient Simulation on Hybrid Vehicle Using Rankine Cycle System,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 1(1), pp. 240–247. [CrossRef]
Quoilin, S., Aumann, R., Grill, A., Schuster, A., Lemort, V., and Spliethoff, H., 2011, “Dynamic Modeling and Optimal Control Strategy of Waste Heat Recovery Organic Rankine Cycles,” Appl. Energy, 88(6), pp. 2183–2190. [CrossRef]
Casati, E., Desideri, A., Casella, F., and Colonna, P., 2012, “Preliminary Assessment of a Novel Small CSP Plant Based on Linear Collectors, ORC and Direct Thermal Storage,” 18th SolarPACES Conference, Marrakech, Morocco, Sept. 11–14.
Harinck, J., Pasquale, D., Pecnik, R., van Buijtenen, J., and Colonna, P., 2013, “Performance Improvement of a Radial ORC Turbine by Means of Automated Design,” Proc. IMechE Part A, 227(6), pp. 637–645. [CrossRef]
Casati, E., Vitale, S., Pini, M., Persico, G., and Colonna, P., 2014, “Centrifugal Turbines for Mini-Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(12), p. 122607. [CrossRef]
Sciacovelli, L., and Cinnella, P., 2014, “Numerical Study of Multistage Transcritical Organic Rankine Cycle Axial Turbines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(8), p. 082604. [CrossRef]
Spinelli, A., Pini, M., Dossena, V., Gaetani, P., and Casella, F., 2013, “Design, Simulation, and Construction of a Test Rig for Organic Vapors,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(4), p. 042304. [CrossRef]
Mathijssen, T., Casati, E., Gallo, M., Nannan, N., Zamfirescu, C., Guardone, A., and Colonna, P., 2014, “Flexible Asymmetric Shock Tube (FAST): Commissioning of a High Temperature Ludwieg Tube for Wave Propagation Measurements,” Exp. Fluids (submitted).
Seher, D., Lengenfelder, T., Gerhardt, J., Eisenmenger, N., Hackner, M., and Krinn, I., 2012, “Waste Heat Recovery for Commercial Vehicles With a Rankine Process,” 21st Aachen Colloquium on Automobile and Engine Technology, Aachen, Germany, Oct. 7–9.
Bell, I. H., Groll, E. A., Braun, J. E., and Horton, W. T., 2013, “A Computationally Efficient Hybrid Leakage Model for Positive Displacement Compressors and Expanders,” Int. J. Refrig., 36(7), pp. 1965–1973. [CrossRef]
Giuffrida, A., 2014, “Modelling the Performance of a Scroll Expander for Small Organic Rankine Cycles When Changing the Working Fluid,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 70(1), pp. 1040–1049. [CrossRef]
Ziviani, D., Bell, I., de Paepe, M., and van der Broek, M., 2014, “Comprehensive Model of a Single Screw Expander for ORC-Systems,” 22nd International Compressor Engineering Conference, Purdue, IN, July 14–17, Paper No. 1506.
Smith, I., Stosic, N., and Kovacevic, A., 2014, Power Recovery From Low Grade Heat by Means of Screw Expanders, Chandos Publishing, Oxford, UK.
Wang, H., and Peterson, R., 2011, “Performance Enhancement of a Thermally Activated Cooling System Using Microchannel Heat Exchangers,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 31(14–15), pp. 2951–2962. [CrossRef]
Karellas, S., Schuster, A., and Leontaritis, A.-D., 2012, “Influence of Supercritical ORC Parameters on Plate Heat Exchanger Design,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 33–34, pp. 70–76. [CrossRef]
Harris, C., Kelly, K., Wang, T., McCandless, A., and Motakef, S., 2002, “Fabrication, Modeling, and Testing of Micro-Cross-Flow Heat Exchangers,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., 11(6), pp. 726–735. [CrossRef]
Ohadi, M., Choo, K., Dessiatoun, S., and Cetegen, E., 2013, Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, Springer, New York.
Boomsma, K., Poulikakos, D., and Zwick, F., 2003, “Metal Foams as Compact High Performance Heat Exchangers,” Mech. Mater., 35(12), pp. 1161–1176. [CrossRef]
Muley, A., Kiser, C., Sundn, B., and Shah, R., 2012, “Foam Heat Exchangers: A Technology Assessment,” Heat Transfer Eng., 33(1), pp. 42–51. [CrossRef]
Godson, L., Raja, B., Mohan Lal, D., and Wongwises, S., 2010, “Enhancement of Heat Transfer Using Nanofluids: An Overview,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 14(2), pp. 629–641. [CrossRef]
Cevallos, J., Bergles, A., Bar-Cohen, A., Rodgers, P., and Gupta, S., 2012, “Polymer Heat Exchangers-History, Opportunities, and Challenges,” Heat Transfer Eng., 33(13), pp. 1075–1093. [CrossRef]
Turboden, 2009, “Agreement for Pratt & Whitney Power Systems, a United Technologies Corporation Company, to Purchase Majority Interest in Turboden,” Turboden, s.r.l., Brescia, Italy, accessed Nov. 1, 2014, www.turboden.eu/en/public/press/20090629_turboden_pratt_ENG.pdf
Sprouse, C., and Depcik, C., 2013, “Review of Organic Rankine Cycles for Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 51(1–2), pp. 711–722. [CrossRef]
Teng, H., Regner, G., and Cowland, C., 2007, “Waste Heat Recovery of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines by Organic Rankine Cycle Part I: Hybrid Energy System of Diesel and Rankine Engines,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0537. [CrossRef]
Teng, H., Regner, G., and Cowland, C., 2007, “Waste Heat Recovery of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines by Organic Rankine Cycle Part II: Working Fluids for WHR-ORC,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0543. [CrossRef]
Freymann, R., Strobl, W., and Obieglo, A., 2008, “The Turbosteamer: A System Introducing the Principle of Cogeneration in Automotive Applications,” MTZ, 69(5), pp. 20–27. [CrossRef]
Lang, W., Almbauer, R., and Colonna, P., 2013, “Assessment of Waste Heat Recovery for a Heavy-Duty Truck Engine Using an ORC Turbogenerator,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(4), p. 042313. [CrossRef]
Endo, T., Kawajiri, S., Kojima, Y., Takahashi, K., Baba, T., Ibaraki, S., Takahashi, T., and Shinohara, M., 2007, “Study on Maximizing Exergy in Automotive Engines,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0257. [CrossRef]
Nag, P., 2008, Power Plant Engineering, 3rd ed., Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, India.
Lin, C.-C., Peng, H., and Grizzle, J. W., 2003, “Power Management Strategy for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Truck,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 11(6), pp. 839–849. [CrossRef]
Dettmer, R., 2010, “The Mighty Micro,” Eng. Technol., 5(3), pp. 42–45. [CrossRef]
Kane, M., 2011, “Micro-Cogeneration Based Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) System in a District Heating Network: A Case Study of the Lausanne City Swimming Pool,” 1st International Seminar on ORC Power Systems (ORC2011), Delft, The Netherlands, Sept. 22–23.
Zanelli, R., and Favrat, D., 1994, “Experimental Investigation of a Hermetic Scroll Expander-Generator,” 12th International Compressor Engineering Conference, West Lafayette, IN, July 19–22, pp. 459–464.
Casati, E., Galli, A., and Colonna, P., 2013, “Thermal Energy Storage for Solar-Powered Organic Rankine Cycle Engines,” Sol. Energy, 96, pp. 205–219. [CrossRef]
Quoilin, S., Orosz, M., Hemond, H., and Lemort, V., 2011, “Performance and Design Optimization of a Low-Cost Solar Organic Rankine Cycle for Remote Power Generation,” Sol. Energy, 85(5), pp. 955–966. [CrossRef]
Schuster, A., Karellas, S., Kakaras, E., and Spliethoff, H., 2009, “Energetic and Economic Investigation of Organic Rankine Cycle Applications,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 29(8–9), pp. 1809–1817. [CrossRef]
Tchanche, B., Lambrinos, G., Frangoudakis, A., and Papadakis, G., 2011, “Low-Grade Heat Conversion Into Power Using Organic Rankine Cycles—A Review of Various Applications,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 15(8), pp. 3963–3979. [CrossRef]
Vélez, F., Segovia, J. J., Martín, M. C., Antolín, G., Chejne, F., and Quijano, A., 2012, “A Technical, Economical and Market Review of Organic Rankine Cycles for the Conversion of Low-Grade Heat for Power Generations,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 16(6), pp. 4175–4189. [CrossRef]
Wang, L., Roskilly, A., and Wang, R., 2014, “Solar Powered Cascading Cogeneration Cycle With ORC and Adsorption Technology for Electricity and Refrigeration,” Heat Transfer Eng., 35(11–12), pp. 1028–1034. [CrossRef]
Jradi, M., and Riffat, S., 2014, “Modelling and Testing of a Hybrid Solar-Biomass ORC-Based Micro-CHP System,” Int. J. of Energy Res., 38(8), pp. 1039–1052. [CrossRef]
Astolfi, M., Xodo, L., Romano, M., and Macchi, E., 2011, “Technical and Economical Analysis of a Solar-Geothermal Hybrid Plant Based on an Organic Rankine Cycle,” Geothermics, 40(1), pp. 58–68. [CrossRef]
Avery, W., and Wu, C., 1994, Renewable Energy From the Ocean: A Guide to OTEC, Oxford University Press, New York.
Ikegami, Y., and Morisaki, T., 2012, “Research on Double Stage-Rankine Cycle for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Using Ammonia as Working Fluid,” 22nd International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Rhodes, Greece, June 17–22, pp. 769–775.
Sun, F., Ikegami, Y., Jia, B., and Arima, H., 2012, “Optimization Design and Exergy Analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion,” Appl. Ocean Res., 35, pp. 38–46. [CrossRef]
Yang, M.-H., and Yeh, R.-H., 2014, “Analysis of Optimization in an OTEC Plant Using Organic Rankine Cycle,” Renewable Energy, 68, pp. 25–34. [CrossRef]
Vega, L., 2010, “Economics of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): An Update,” Offshore Technology Conference (OTC). Houston, TX, May 3–6, Paper No. OTC 21016. [CrossRef]
Angelino, G., and Colonna, P., 2000, “Air Cooled Siloxane Bottoming Cycle for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells,” Fuel Cell Seminar, Portland, OR, Oct. 30–Nov. 2, pp. 667–670.
De Servi, C., Campanari, S., Tizzanini, A., Pietra, C., 2013, “Enhancement of the Electrical Efficiency of Commercial Fuel Cell Units by Means of an Organic Rankine Cycle: A Case Study,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(4), p. 042309 [CrossRef]
Akkaya, A., and Sahin, B., 2009, “A Study on Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Organic Rankine Cycle Combined System,” Int. J. Energy Res., 33(6), pp. 553–564. [CrossRef]
Chacartegui, R., Snchez, D., Noz, J. M., and Sánchez, T., 2009, “Alternative ORC Bottoming Cycles for Combined Cycle Power Plants,” Appl. Energy., 86(10), pp. 2162–2170. [CrossRef]
Kusterer, K., Braun, R., Köllen, L., Sugimoto, T., Tanimura, K., and Bohn, D., 2013, “Combined Solar Thermal Gas Turbine and Organic Rankine Cycle Application for Improved Cycle Efficiencies,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-94713. [CrossRef]
Dunham, M., and Iverson, B., 2014, “High-Efficiency Thermodynamic Power Cycles for Concentrated Solar Power Systems,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 30, pp. 758–770. [CrossRef]
Nored, D. L., and Bernatowicz, D. T., 1986, “Electrical Power System Design for the U.S. Space Station,” 21st Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, Aug. 25–29, pp. 1416–1422.
Farina, F., Mao, C., and Tuninetti, G., 1987, “Organic Rankine Cycle Power Conversion Systems for Space Applications,” Photovoltaic Generators in Space, 5th European Symposium on Photovoltaic Generators in Space, The Hague/Scheveningen, The Netherlands, Sept. 30–Oct. 2, pp. 225–230.
KCORC, 2013, “Knowledge Center on Organic Rankine Cycle Technology,” ASME International Gas Turbine Institute, www.kcorc.org

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The processes forming an exemplary superheated/regenerated ORC power plant in the T − s thermodynamic plane of the working fluid, see also Table 5, (a) together with the corresponding process flow diagram (b). (c) Q·-T diagram of the evaporator of the ORC system, assuming that the energy source is flue gas at 300 °C, compared to the Q·-T diagram of the boiler of a simple steam power plant (d) having flue gas in the same conditions as energy input. The thermodynamic cycles of the ORC and steam power plants have been optimized for maximum net power output having the evaporation pressure and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) as optimization variables, subject to a constraint on the same minimum pinch point in the evaporator (a minimum superheating of 5 °C is also imposed). The main cycle parameters are reported in Table 1.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Current and future fields of application of ORC versus steam power systems in terms of average temperature of the energy source and power capacity of the system. Boundaries are indicative and evolving in time. Adapted from Ref. [11].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Earliest ORC engines. (a) Engine of the Ofeldt naphta launch, 1897. Fuel is pumped in the bows by air pressure, generated by a hand pump, and passes through a coil boiler. Part of the vapor issuing from the boiler is fed to the burner that heats the boiler itself and the rest drives a three-cylinder engine. The long U-tube at the bottom is the condenser [28]. (b) Shuman's solar ORC-based pumping system prototype installed in Philadelphia, 1907. The flat solar collector is also visible. It was called the hot box, with double glazing containing the blackened pipes acting as the vapor generator [29].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Number of installed units per year (a) and cumulative power capacity (b) of the commercial ORC power plants commissioned between 1995 and the end of 2013, based on the data reported in Table 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Exemplary ORC power plants. Large systems—courtesy of Ormat Technologies Inc. [85]: (a) aerial view of the Ngatamariki 100 MWe geothermal plant in New Zealand, featuring four 25 MWe units. Geothermal fluid is available at 192 °C, brine and condensate return at 90 °C; (b) turbines of the axial type for similar applications during the assembly phase, approx. 15 MWe power output each. Medium scale systems—courtesy of Turboden s.r.l. [91]: (c) aerial view of a 5600 kWe geothermal plant installed in Germany; (d) 2 MWe ORC unit, i.e., turbine and regenerator/condenser, for the hybrid plant built in Ait Baha, Morocco, recovering heat from a cement plant and integrating it with a solar thermal source. Small scale systems—courtesy of Triogen BV [89]: (e) 160 kWe unit installed in Belgium, recovering thermal power from a biogas engine; (f) hermetic turbo-generator assembly for the same system, with single-stage radial expander.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Annual industrial waste heat in the U.S. [124], Japan [125], and UK [126]. The data are not strictly homogeneous and are shown here together to indicate that the potential for useful conversion is in any case large.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Normalized number of published journal articles or conference papers in English per year since 1980. Dashed line: articles having engineering and energy as subject area. Solid line: articles on ORC power systems within the same subject area, i.e., with the acronym ORC appearing in the article title, abstract, or among the keywords. The values are normalized with respect to the maximum value, which is indicated in the figure [138].

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In